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Frontiers in Biology

Front. Biol.    2016, Vol. 11 Issue (2) : 65-74     DOI: 10.1007/s11515-016-1399-x
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Function of Polycomb repressive complexes in stem cells
Jin He()
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Natural Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
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Abstract

Stem cells are unique cell populations identified in a variety of normal tissues and some cancers. Maintenance of stem cell pools is essential for normal development, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Recent studies have revealed that Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) play a central role in maintaining stem cells by repressing cellular senescence and differentiation. Here, we will review recent findings on dynamic composition of PRC complexes and sub-complexes, how PRCs are recruited to chromatin, and their functional roles in maintaining self-renewal of stem cells. Furthermore, we will discuss how PRCs, CpG islands (CGIs), the INK4A/ARF/INK4B locus, and developmental genes form a hierarchical regulatory axis that is utilized by a variety of stem cells to maintain their self-renewal and identities.

Keywords Polycomb repressive complexes      gene silencing      CpG islands      stem cells      self-renewal     
Corresponding Authors: Jin He   
Just Accepted Date: 25 April 2016   Online First Date: 05 May 2016    Issue Date: 17 May 2016
 Cite this article:   
Jin He. Function of Polycomb repressive complexes in stem cells[J]. Front. Biol., 2016, 11(2): 65-74.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fib/EN/Y2016/V11/I2/65
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Jin He
Fig.1  Polycomb repressive complexes in mammals. A. The core components of PRC1 include RING1A/1B and Polycomb group ring finger proteins (PCGFs). PRC1 is sub-divided into six groups (PRC1.1-1.6) based on different PCGF proteins associated with the core components. The canonical PRC1 (cPRC1) and non-canonical PRC1 (ncPRC1) sub-groups have CBX and RYBP/YAF2 proteins associated with the core component respectively. The histone lysine demethylase 2B (KDM2B) in the PRC1.1 binds to CpG islands through its CxxC-ZF domain. B. The core components of PRC2 are composed of enhancer of zester homolog 2 (EZH2) or EZH1, embryonic ectoderm development (EED), and suppressor or zeste 12 (SUZ12). The PRC2 core components interact with different binding partners, such as JARID2, AEBP2, and PCL proteins, to form various PRC2 sub-complexes.
Fig.2  Polycomb repressive complexes in mammals. (A) The core components of PRC1 include RING1A/1B and Polycomb group ring finger proteins (PCGFs). PRC1 is sub-divided into six groups (PRC1.1-1.6) based on different PCGF proteins associated with the core components. The canonical PRC1 (cPRC1) and non-canonical PRC1 (ncPRC1) sub-groups have CBX and RYBP/YAF2 proteins associated with the core components respectively. The histone lysine demethylase 2B (KDM2B) in the PRC1.1 binds to CpG islands through its CxxC-ZF domain. (B) The core components of PRC2 are composed of enhancer of zester homolog 2 (EZH2) or EZH1, embryonic ectoderm development (EED), and suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12). The PRC2 core components interact with different binding partners, such as JARID2, AEBP2, and PCL proteins, to form various PRC2 sub-complexes.
Fig.3  Functions of Polycomb repressive complexes in stem cell maintenance and lineage differentiation. PRCs are recruited to the CGI promoters of INK4A/ARF/INK4B locus and key developmental genes in stem cells, and maintain the gene silencing by blocking non-specific transcriptional signals from environments. Silencing of both INK4A/ARF/INK4B locus and differentiation genes is essential for the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal. During lineage differentiation, strong lineage-specific transcriptional signals remove PRCs from promoters and drive the expression of lineage-specific genes.
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