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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 41     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-019-1125-4
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Biodegradation of triclosan and triclocarban in sewage sludge during composting under three ventilation strategies
Bao Yu1,2, Guodi Zheng1,2(), Xuedong Wang3, Min Wang1,3, Tongbin Chen1,2
1. Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
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Abstract

TCS and TCC can be biodegraded during sewage sludge composting.

Ventilation significantly accelerated the biodegradation of TCS and TCC in sludge.

Composting can reduce the environmental risk of TCS and TCC in sewage sludge.

Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used in home and personal care products as antimicrobial agents. After these products are used, TCS and TCC enter the terrestrial environment and pose a great risk to humans and animals. In this research, the biodegradation of TCS and TCC was investigated during sewage sludge composting with ventilation rates of 108, 92, and 79 m3/min. TCS and TCC were mainly biodegraded in the mesophilic and thermophilic phases, and the biodegradation rates improved with an increase in ventilation. After sewage sludge was composted for 16 days with forced ventilation (108 m3/min), the concentration of TCS decreased from 497.4 to 214.5 μg/kg, and the concentration of TCC decreased from 823.2 to 172.7 μg/kg. The biodegradation rates of TCS and TCC were 65.2% and 83.1%, respectively. However, after the sewage sludge was stacked for 16 days, the biodegradation rates of TCS and TCC were only 17.0% and 18.2%, respectively. The environmental risks of TCS and TCC in the sewage sludge piles significantly decreased after composting. In the sludge pile with a ventilation rate of 108 m3/min, the RQ values of TCS and TCC decreased from 8.29 and 20.58 to 3.58 and 4.32 after composting for 16 days, respectively. There is still a high risk if the sludge compost is directly used as a culture substrate. Nevertheless, the environmental risk could be decreased distinctly if a reasonable quantity of sludge compost is applied to land to ensure an RQ of<1 for TCS and TCC.

Keywords Sewage sludge      Compost      Triclosan      Triclocarban      Ventilation      Risk assessment     
This article is part of themed collection: Environmental Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance (Xin Yu, Hui Li & Virender K. Sharma)
Corresponding Authors: Guodi Zheng   
Issue Date: 11 June 2019
 Cite this article:   
Bao Yu,Guodi Zheng,Xuedong Wang, et al. Biodegradation of triclosan and triclocarban in sewage sludge during composting under three ventilation strategies[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 41.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-019-1125-4
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2019/V13/I3/41
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Bao Yu
Guodi Zheng
Xuedong Wang
Min Wang
Tongbin Chen
Treatment Ventilation rate
(0?3 d)
Ventilation rate
(4?16 d)
Ventilation time
(0?16 d)
A1a 79 m3/min 79 m3/min 6 min continuous ventilation, 34 min interval
A2b 79 m3/min 93 m3/min 6 min continuous ventilation, 34 min interval
A3c 79 m3/min 108 m3/min 6 min continuous ventilation, 34 min interval
Tab.1  Ventilation strategies used in the sludge-composting trials
Fig.1  Temperatures of the piles during sewage sludge composting with different ventilation rates.
Fig.2  TOC values of the composting material during sewage sludge composting with different ventilation rates.
Fig.3  Dynamic changes of TCS and TCC during the sewage sludge composting and stacking processes; (a) TCS and TCC concentration changes under low ventilation and stacking; (b) TCS and TCC biodegradation rate changes under low ventilation and stacking; (c) TCS concentration changes under different ventilation rates; (d) TCC concentration changes under different ventilation rates.
Fig.4  Final biodegradation rates of TCS and TCC in sewage sludge after composting with different ventilation treatments.
Fig.5  Initial and final RQ values of TCS and TCC in the four sludge piles. A1, Low-ventilation pile; A2, Medium-ventilation pile; A3, High-ventilation pile, and CK, Directly stacked pile.
Groups A1a A2b A3c CKd
TCS PECe 2.12 μg/kg 2.08 μg/kg 1.78 μg/kg 8.38 μg/kg
RQf 0.035 0.035 0.030 0.140
TCC PEC 4.09 μg/kg 3.99 μg/kg 1.44?μg/kg 17.3 μg/kg
RQ 0.102 0.099 0.036 0.432
Tab.2  PEC and RQ values of TCS and TCC after sludge land application
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