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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2018, Vol. 12 Issue (6) : 1     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-018-1036-9
OVERVIEW
Potential sources of unintentionally produced PCB, HCB, and PeCBz in China: A preliminary overview
Xiaotu Liu1,2, Heidelore Fiedler1,3, Wenwen Gong1,4, Bin Wang1, Gang Yu1()
1. School of Environment, Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. School of Environment, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
3. MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden
4. Beijing Research Center for Agriculture Standards and Testing, Beijing 100097, China
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Abstract

A preliminary analysis of potential sources for unintentionally produced PCB, HCB and PeCBz in China.

Activity rates of sources for reference years from 2000 to 2015 provided.

Emissions from a number of sources summarized and compared.

Implications for future research and regulation discussed.

Under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), China is required not only to reduce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) but also unintentionally produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz). A baseline of the sources in China that generate these unintentional POPs is needed for both research and regulation purposes. In this paper, we have compiled production data of potential sources in China and assessed them in five-year intervals from 2000 to 2015. Most of these activities experienced changes from rapid growth to slow growth. Measured data for PCB, HCB and PeCBz in samples collected from potential sources in China were reviewed. Most information was associated to thermal processes with high potential of emission, including waste incineration and ferrous and non-ferrous metal production. In addition, high levels of PCB, HCB and PeCBz were found as impurities in a few chlorinated products or as by-products in solvent production, which suggested organochlorine industry might be important sources. Finally, based on the studies reviewed, recommendations for future actions in research and policy as well as a few regulatory issues in China are discussed.

Keywords Unintentionally produced POPs      Polychlorinated biphenyls      Hexachlorobenzene      Pentachlorobenzene      sources of releases      Annual production activities     
Corresponding Author(s): Gang Yu   
Issue Date: 19 August 2018
 Cite this article:   
Xiaotu Liu,Heidelore Fiedler,Wenwen Gong, et al. Potential sources of unintentionally produced PCB, HCB, and PeCBz in China: A preliminary overview[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2018, 12(6): 1.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-018-1036-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2018/V12/I6/1
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Xiaotu Liu
Heidelore Fiedler
Wenwen Gong
Bin Wang
Gang Yu
Source Group Data from China found No data from China found
1 Waste incineration a-Municipal solid waste incineration;
c-Medical waste incineration
b-Hazardous waste incineration;
d-Light fraction shredder waste incineration;
e-Sewage sludge incineration;
f-Waste wood and waste biomass incineration;
g-Animal carcasses burning
2 Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metal Production a-Iron ore sintering;
b-Coke production;
c-Iron and steel production plants and foundries;
d-Copper production;
e-Aluminum production;
f-Lead production;
g-Zinc production;
i-Magnesium production;
l-Thermal wire reclamation and e-waste recycling
h-Brass and bronze production;
j-Thermal non-ferrous metal production (e.g., Ni);
k-Shredders
3 Heat and Power Generation a-Fossil fuel power plants
b-Biomass power plants
c-Landfill biogas combustion
d-Household heating and cooking- Biomass
e-Domesting heating- Fossil fuels
4 Production of Mineral Products a-Cement kilns b-Lime;
c-Brick;
d-Glass;
e-Ceramics;
f-Asphalt mixing;
g-Oil shale processing
5 Transport a-4-Stroke engines
b-2-Stroke engines
c-Diesel engines
d-Heavy oil fired engines
6 Open Burning Processes b-Waste burning and accidental fires a- Biomass burning
7 Production and Use of Chemicals and Consumer Goods d-Chlorinated aromatic chemicals (chloranil; 2,4-D products; PCNB; pigment) a-Pulp and paper mills;
b-Chlorinated inorganic chemicals
c-Chlorinated aliphatic chemicals
e-Other chlorinated and non-chlorinated chemicals;
f-Petroleum refining;
g-Textile plants;
h-Leather plants
8 Miscellaneous a-Drying of biomass
b-Crematoria
c-Smoke houses
d-Dry cleaning
e-Tobacco smoking
9 Disposal a-Landfills, waste dumps and landfill mining
b-Sewage/sewage treatment
c-Open water dumping
d-Composting
e-Waste oil disposal
10 Contaminated Sites and Hotspots a-Production sites of chlorine
b-Production sites of chlorinated organics
c-Application sites of PCDD/PCDF containing pesticides and chemicals
d-Timber manufacture and treatment sites
e-Textile and leather factories
f-Use of PCB
g-Use of chlorine for production of metals and inorganic chemicals
h-Waste incinerators
i-Metal industries
j-Fire accidents
k-Dredging of sediments and contaminated flood plains
l-Dumps of wastes/residues from groups 1-9
m-Kaolin or ball clay sites
Tab.1  Grouping of presence or absence of release data for PCB, HCB or PeCBz reported from activities in China according to the ten source groups (1–10) and source categories (a–k) in the UNEP Toolkit
Fig.1  Examples of increasing trends for activity data during the period from 2000 to 2015: (a) exponential, (b) linear, (c) polynomial
Fig.2  Comparisons of production volumes (and increasing trends) between primary and secondary non-ferrous metal production
SGa Category Unit 2000 2004 2005 2010 2013 2015 Source
Population million 1267 1300 1308 1341 1361 1375 China Statistical Yearbookb
GDP per capita $ 955 1498 1740 4515 6992 7925 World Bankc
1 a-incinerated municipal solid waste Mt NA 4.5 7.9 23.2 46.3 61.8 China Statistical Yearbookb
b-generated hazardous waste Mt 8.3 10.0 11.6 15.9 31.6 39.8 China Statistical Yearbookb
e-generated sewage sludge Mt 14.0 11.1 21.2 26.4 30.2 China Environment Yearbookd
2 a-sintering ore Mt 304.5 369.2 688.2 886.6 China Steel Yearbooke
b-coke Mt 121.8 206.2 254.1 388.6 479.3 448.2 China Statistical Yearbookb
c-pig iron Mt 131.0 268.3 343.8 597.3 709.0 691.4
c-crude steel Mt 128.5 282.9 353.2 637.2 779.0 803.8
d-copper-primary Mt 1.0 1.6 1.8 2.9 4.5 5.7f The Yearbook of Nonferrous Metals Industry of Chinah
d-copper-secondary Mt 0.3 0.6 0.7 1.6 2.2 2.3f
e-aluminum-primary Mt 2.8 6.7 7.8 16.2 23.2 31.3f
e-aluminum-secondary Mt 0.1 1.7 1.9 4.0 5.3 6.4g
f-lead-primary Mt 1.0 1.5 1.9 2.8 3.4 2.7f
f-lead-secondary Mt 0.1 0.4 0.5 1.4 1.5 1.2f
g-zinc-primary Mt 1.9 2.7 2.8 5.0 5.1 5.8f
g-zinc-secondary Mt 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3f
h-brass and bronze products Mt 1.6 4.7 5.0 9.9 13.6 19.1f
i-magnesium Mt 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.9f
3 a-coal consumed for power generation Mt 558 920 1033 1545 1952 1793 China Statistical Yearbookb
e-coal consumed for heating Mt 88 115 135 153 227 241
4 a-cement kilns Mt 597 967 1069 1882 2416 2359 China Statistical Yearbookb
d-glass Mt 9 19 20 33 39 39
5 a-passenger vehicles 1.0E+ 06 9 11 21 78 106 163
c-trucks 1.0E+ 06 3 4 10 16 20 21
6 a-cereals Mt 405 412 428 496 553 572 China Statistical Yearbookb
a-sugarcane Mt 68 90 87 111 128 117
b-destructed forest area 1.0E+ 06 m2 884 1422 737 458 429 129
Tab.2  Annual GDP per capita, population and activity rate of potential sources of unintentional POPs in China
Fig.3  Concentrations of dl-PCB in purified stack gas from thermal processes in China.
SGa Category Number of samplesb Concentration (ng/Nm3) APCSc Reference
PCB dl-PCB dl-PCB WHO TEQ HCB PeCBz
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator Stack 6 9.9–129d 0.1–1.1 0.00087–0.0197 11.2–122.0 18.7–213 BF+ SDS+ AC Li et al., 2016
Raw 2 13.3–44.1e 0.93–1.8 0.0105–0.041 28.3–186 195–525
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator 8 1.34–20d BF+/SDS+/AC+/SNCR+/QF Zhao et al., 2015
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator 5 15.2–127.9e 0.55–5.77 0.0023–0.0368 BF+/SDS+/AC+ NIDS/+/QF Liu et al., 2013b
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator Stack 9 1.3–11.6 3.9–14.3 not specified Yan et al., 2010
Raw 6 51–9594 164–5751
1c Medical waste incinerator 3 26.5–124e 2.1–18.8 0.0133–0.214 BF+/SDS+/AC+/QF Liu et al., 2013b
1c Medical waste incinerator Stack 3 138–855d 3.5–41.0 0.046–0.549 AC+ SDS Chen et al., 2009
Raw 2 1728–3192d 104–192 1.247–2.510
2a Iron ore sintering 4 12.8–19.1 0.23–0.37 136.2–754.3 763.5–1501.5 ESP Tian et al., 2012
2a Iron ore sintering 9 1.56–58.9e 0.145–10.44 0.002–0.214 ESP Liu et al., 2013b
2c Electric arc furnace 3 159.3–288.1e 2.35–5.5 0.015–0.02 BF Liu et al., 2013b
2c Iron foundries 5 0.967–20.065 0.05–0.063 BF+ WS Lv et al., 2011a
2c Converter steelmaking processes 12 0.036–0.75 0.00003–0.00285 BF Li et al., 2014
2b Coking process 9 0.0004–0.0877 BF Liu et al., 2009a
2b Coking process 9 0.0987–4.648 0.0003–0.0048 0.182–0.816 0.209–0.661 BF Liu et al., 2009b
2g Secondary zinc production 3 1.9–5.28 not specified Ba et al., 2009a
2f Secondary lead production 3 0.0009–0.005 not specified Ba et al., 2009a
2e Secondary aluminum production <30f 0.0001–0.215 BF+/cyclone Ba et al., 2009b
2d Secondary copper production <30f 0.0003–0.126 BF+/cyclone Ba et al., 2009b
2d Primary copper production 9 2.6–30.9 19.6–447 27.6–1035 ESP+/BF Nie et al., 2012a
2d Secondary copper production 6 8.1–28.1 441–550 989–1373 BF Nie et al., 2012a
2d Secondary copper production 12 0.31–11.6 0.003–0.13 BFg Hu et al., 2013
2j Thermal wire reclamation 5 187–982 0.4–2.1 41.3–144 103–354 Water-coolingg Nie et al., 2012b
2i Magnesium metallurgy facilities 9 0.1265–3.78 2.27–22.9 3.21–37.0 ESP/BF Nie et al., 2011
4a Cement kilns 3 44.7–143.5e 0.44–2.64 0.0017–0.002 BF Liu et al., 2013b
Tab.3  PCB, HCB and PeCBz concentrations in stack gas samples from thermal processes in China
SGa Category Number of sample sizeb concentration (ng/g) Reference
PCB dl-PCB dl-PCB
WHO2005-TEQ
HCB PeCBz
fly ash
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator 8 0.524–6.9c Zhao, et al., 2015
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator 5 1.6–3.4c 0.016–1.6 0.00024–0.034 43.1–47.9d 9.15–11.6d Li et al., 2016
1c Medical waste incinerator 4 0.69–15.6 0.012–0.39 0.45–87.5 Yan et al., 2011
2b Coking process 14 0.26 0.00026 0.29 0.146 Liu et al., 2013a
2a Iron ore sintering process 4 3.6–38.8 0.2–0.82 8.6–36.7 8.6–26.5 Tian et al., 2012
2c Iron foundries 13 0.02–8.42 0.00003–0.01 Lv et al., 2011a
2c Converter steelmaking processes 5 0.005–0.18 0.00003–0.001 Li et al., 2014
2d Primary copper production 3 0.3–5.7 5.4–5.8 11–14.2 Nie et al., 2012a
2d Secondary copper production 2 27.7–115 4.4–10.8 12.5–17.1 Nie et al., 2012a
2d Secondary copper production <20e 0.0003–32.4 Ba et al., 2009b
2e Secondary aluminum production <20e 0.003–2.3 Ba et al., 2009b
2g Secondary zinc production 2 0.0329–0.1121 Ba et al., 2009a
2f Secondary lead production 2 0.00007–0.0003 Ba et al., 2009a
2i Magnesium metallurgy facilities 4 0.0246–0.054 0.191–0.278 0.273–0.404 Nie et al., 2011
Bottom ash
1a Municipal solid waste incinerator 6 1.00–1.31f 0.08–0.52 0.00006–0.0015 Shen et al., 2010
1c Medical waste incineratorg 4 0.0099–38.8 0.003–0.94 5.05–74.8 Yan et al., 2011
2j Thermal wire reclamationh 2 13.6–25.3 0.008–0.2 16.5–23 10.7–50.9 Nie et al., 2012b
2c Hot dip galvanizingi 3 0.233–0.743 Lv et al., 2011b
2c Iron foundriesj 1 0.007 0.00001 Lv et al., 2011a
Tab.4  PCB, HCB and PeCBz concentrations in ash samples from thermal processes in China
Products Number of sample size Concentration in product (ng/g) Reference
dl-PCB WHO2005-TEQ HCB PeCBz
Chloranil 3 0.0026 (0.0019–0.0033) 32.6 136.6 Liu et al., 2012
2,4-D products 5 0.0219 (0.00006–0.108) 1.7 (ND-2.9) 13.9 (0.37–63.3) Liu et al., 2013c
PCNB 5 1.5 (0.68–2.5) 31 (3.7–52) 0.2 (0.04–0.3) Huang et al., 2014
Picloram 3 1150 (727–1527) Lu, 2007
Chlorothalonil 1 42200 Wang et al., 2005
Chlorothalonil 1 39900 Xiang, 2008
Pigment 24 0.00002–4.21 Shang et al., 2014
Carbon tetrachloride 8 3.77–1170a 5950–38800 Zhang et al., 2015
Tab.5  Concentrations of dl-PCB, HCB and PeCBz in products or by-products in China
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