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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (3) : 539-547     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-016-0830-5
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Changes of microbial composition during wastewater reclamation and distribution systems revealed by high-throughput sequencing analyses
Yiwen LIN1,Dan LI2,*(),Siyu ZENG1,Miao HE1,*()
1. State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
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Abstract

This study employed 454-pyrosequencing to investigate microbial and pathogenic communities in two wastewater reclamation and distribution systems. A total of 11972 effective 16S rRNA sequences were acquired from these two reclamation systems, and then designated to relevant taxonomic ranks by using RDP classifier. The Chao index and Shannon diversity index showed that the diversities of microbial communities decreased along wastewater reclamation processes. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in reclaimed water after disinfection, which accounted for 83% and 88% in two systems, respectively. Human opportunistic pathogens, including Clostridium, Escherichia, Shigella, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium, were selected and enriched by disinfection processes. The total chlorine and nutrients (TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N) significantly affected the microbial and pathogenic communities during reclaimed water storage and distribution processes. Our results indicated that the disinfectant-resistant pathogens should be controlled in reclaimed water, since the increases in relative abundances of pathogenic bacteria after disinfection implicate the potential public health associated with reclaimed water.

Keywords wastewater reclamation systems      microbial community      pathogenic community      454-pyrosequencing     
Corresponding Authors: Dan LI,Miao HE   
Online First Date: 16 March 2016    Issue Date: 05 April 2016
 Cite this article:   
Yiwen LIN,Dan LI,Siyu ZENG, et al. Changes of microbial composition during wastewater reclamation and distribution systems revealed by high-throughput sequencing analyses[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(3): 539-547.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-016-0830-5
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2016/V10/I3/539
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Yiwen LIN
Dan LI
Siyu ZENG
Miao HE
Fig.1  Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) analysis of 16S rRNA genes in reclaimed water samples collected from Q (Q1-Q5) and W (W1-W4) systems. Principal coordinates plots were generated using the presence of each OTU (at a distance level of 3%)
Fig.2  Bacterial community structures in Q (Q1-Q5) and W (W1-W4) reclamation systems. The proportions of bacteria are presented by the percentage of certain bacteria in the total effective bacterial sequences in each water sample, which were classified according to the RDP Classifier at the confidence threshold of 50%
Fig.3  (a) Proteobacteria and (b) Firmicutes compositions in reclaimed water samples collected from Q (Q1-Q5) and W (W1-W4) systems
Fig.4  (a) Alphaproteobacteria, (b) Betaproteobacteria, (c) Gammaproteobacteria and (d) Deltaproteobacteria compositions by order in reclaimed water samples
Fig.5  Relative proportions of pathogenic bacterial genera in different reclaimed water samples. The reclaimed water samples were collected from Q (Q1-Q5) and W (W1-W4) systems. The circles in the figures are presented by the percentages of a pathogenic genus in total identified pathogen populations
Fig.6  Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of samples based on microbial communities in reclaimed water samples. Those samples include effluents (Q4 and W3) of reclaimed treatment plants and samples (Q5 and W4) collected at the end of distribution pipes from Q and W systems. The arrow shows the magnitude and direction of the parameters related with the structures of bacterial communities. Each solid-circle indicated a structure of bacterial community from a reclaimed water sample
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