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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2016, Vol. 10 Issue (3) : 467-476
Utilization of aluminum hydroxide waste generated in fluoride adsorption and coagulation processes for adsorptive removal of cadmium ion
Jiawei JU1,2,Ruiping LIU1,*(),Zan HE1,2,Huijuan LIU1,Xiwang ZHANG3,Jiuhui QU1
1. State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia
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Although Al-based coagulation and adsorption processes have been proved highly efficient for fluoride (F) removal, the two processes both generate large amount of Al(OH)3 solid waste containing F (Al(OH)3-F). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of utilizing Al(OH)3-F generated in Al(OH)3 adsorption (Al(OH)3-Fads) and coagulation (Al(OH)3-Fcoag) for the adsorption of cadmium ion (Cd(II)). The adsorption capacity of Al(OH)3-Fads and Al(OH)3-Fcoag for Cd(II) was similar as that of pristine aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), being of 24.39 and 19.90 mg·g-1, respectively. The adsorption of Cd(II) onto Al(OH)3-Fads and Al(OH)3-Fcoag was identified to be dominated by ion-exchange with sodium ion (Na+) or hydrogen ion (H+), surface microprecitation, and electrostatic attraction. The maximum concentration of the leached fluoride from Al(OH)3-Fads and Al(OH)3-Fcoag is below the Chinese Class-I Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard for fluoride (<10 mg·L-1). This study demonstrates that the Al(OH)3 solid wastes generated in fluoride removal process could be potentially utilized as a adsorbent for Cd(II) removal.

Keywords Al(OH)3      fluoride      cadmium      adsorption      reclamation      sequential extraction     
Corresponding Authors: Ruiping LIU   
Online First Date: 28 July 2015    Issue Date: 05 April 2016
 Cite this article:   
Jiawei JU,Ruiping LIU,Zan HE, et al. Utilization of aluminum hydroxide waste generated in fluoride adsorption and coagulation processes for adsorptive removal of cadmium ion[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2016, 10(3): 467-476.
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Jiawei JU
Ruiping LIU
Zan HE
Huijuan LIU
Xiwang ZHANG
Jiuhui QU
kinetic models parameter Al(OH)3-Fads Al(OH)3-Fcoag Al(OH)3
Qe,exp /(mg·g-1) 16.19 15.65 19.46
pseudo-first-order kinetic model k1 /( × 10 min-1) 0.19 0.16 0.23
Qe,cal /(mg·g-1) 12.78 12.30 11.70
R2 0.89 0.89 0.78
pseudo-second-order kinetic model k2 /( × 102 min-1) 0.16 0.14 0.04
Qe,cal /(mg·g-1) 16.66 16.39 19.60
R2 0.99 0.99 0.99
Tab.1  Fitted kinetic parameters of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models for the adsorption of Cd(II) onto these three adsorbents
adsorbents Qe,expa)/(mg·g-1) adsorption isotherm models
Langmuir parameters Freundlich parameters D-R parameters
Qmax/(mg·g-1) L/(L·mg-1) R2 F n R2 Qmax/(mg·g-1) E/(kJ·mol-1) R2
Al(OH)3-Fads 17.12 24.39 0.04 0.99 1.18 1.53 0.90 25.75 8.45 0.98
Al(OH)3-Fcoag 16.86 19.90 0.08 0.99 4.94 3.18 0.94 40.74 5.59 0.99
Al(OH)3 20.05 30.30 0.03 0.99 2.83 2.02 0.84 38.99 6.74 0.99
Tab.2  Fitted parameters of Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models for the adsorption of Cd(II) onto these three adsorbents
Fig.1  Uptake of Cd(II) onto these three adsorbents at various equilibrium pH
Fig.2  Uptake of Cd(II) onto these three adsorbents at various ionic strength
Fig.3  Solution pH variation during the adsorption of Cd(II) by these three adsorbents with prolonged time
Fig.4  XPS spectra of Cd 3d and Cl 2p on the surfaces of these three adsorbents
Binding energy /eV
Al(OH)3-Fads Al(OH)3-Fcoag Al(OH)3 Al(OH)3-Fads-Cd(II) Al(OH)3-Fcoag-Cd(II) Al(OH)3-Cd(II)
Na 1s 1071.5 (13.6%)a) 1071.5 (12.1%) 1071.7 (6.5%) 1071.4 (1.0%) 1071.5 (4.2%) 1071.4 (1.2%)
O 1s 531.8 (31.6%)a) 531.9 (34.8%) 531.6 (50.6%) 532.0 (47.1%) 531.9 (48.1%) 531.6 (60.4%)
Al 2p 74.4 (14.6%) 74.3 (21.7%) 74.0 (18.0%) 74.5 (29.6%) 74.4 (27.1%) 74.1 (20.2%)
F 1s 684.8 (14.9%) 684.9 (9.9%) / 685.1 (19.4%) 684.8 (13.9%) /
Cl 2p 198.6 (6.6%)200.2 (3.3%) 198.6 (6.1%)200.2 (4.3%) 198.6 (4.4%)200.1 (2.3%) 198.1 (5.1%)199.5 (4.6%) 198 (2.1%)199.5 (1.5%) 197.8 (1.8%)199.2 (1.1%)
Cd 3d / / / 405.2 (0.2%)411.9 (0.1%) 405.5 (0.2%)412.2 (0.2%) 405.3 (0.3%)412.1 (0.2%)
Tab.3  XPS binding energy of the main elements on the surfaces of these three adsorbents before and after adsorbing Cd(II)
Fig.5  Content and ratios of Cd(II) in different binding species within these three adsorbent (species-I: water-soluble Cd(II); species-II: N H 4 + -exchangeable Cd(II); species-III: Na+-exchangeable Cd(II))
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