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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front. Environ. Sci. Eng.    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (6) : 805-819     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-014-0756-8
FEATURE ARTICLE |
Engineering application of membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment in China: Current state and future prospect
Kang XIAO1,2,Ying XU1,Shuai LIANG1,3,Ting LEI1,Jianyu SUN1,Xianghua WEN1,Hongxun ZHANG2,Chunsheng CHEN1,Xia HUANG1,*()
1. State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
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Abstract

China has been the forerunner of large-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) application. Since the first large-scale MBR (≥10 000 m3·d-1) was put into operation in 2006, the engineering implementation of MBR in China has attained tremendous development. This paper outlines the commercial application of MBR since 2006 and provides a variety of engineering statistical data, covering the fields of municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, and polluted surface water treatment. The total treatment capacity of MBRs reached 1 × 106 m3·d-1 in 2010, and has currently exceeded 4.5 × 106 m3·d-1 with ~75% of which pertaining to municipal wastewater treatment. The anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic-MBR and its derivative processes have been the most popular in the large-scale municipal application, with the process features and typical ranges of parameters also presented in this paper. For the treatment of various types of industrial wastewater, the configurations of the MBR-based processes are delineated with representative engineering cases. In view of the significance of the cost issue, statistics of capital and operating costs are also provided, including cost structure and energy composition. With continuous stimulation from the environmental stress, political propulsion, and market demand in China, the total treatment capacity is expected to reach 7.5 × 106 m3·d-1 by 2015 and a further expansion of the market is foreseeable in the next five years. However, MBR application is facing several challenges, such as the relatively high energy consumption. Judging MBR features and seeking suitable application areas should be of importance for the long-term development of this technology.

Keywords membrane bioreactor (MBR)      engineering application      wastewater treatment      review      China     
Corresponding Authors: Xia HUANG   
Issue Date: 17 November 2014
 Cite this article:   
Ting LEI,Jianyu SUN,Xianghua WEN, et al. Engineering application of membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment in China: Current state and future prospect[J]. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2014, 8(6): 805-819.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-014-0756-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2014/V8/I6/805
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Ting LEI
Jianyu SUN
Xianghua WEN
Hongxun ZHANG
Chunsheng CHEN
Xia HUANG
Shuai LIANG
Ying XU
Kang XIAO
Fig.1  Development of engineering application of large-scale MBRs (≥10000 m3·d-1) in China since 2006
membrane materiala) module pore size/μm product name manufacturer
PVDF hollow fiber 0.4 Sterapore SADF Mitsubishi Rayon, Japan
PVDF hollow fiber 0.30.1 RFBSY Origin Water, China
PVDF hollow fiber 0.1 Microza MUNC Asahi Kasei, Japan
PVDF hollow fiber 0.1 SMT600-BR Beijing Scinor, China
PVDF hollow fiber <0.1 SMM Memstar, Singapore
PVDF hollow fiber <0.1 BF, BT Tianjin Motimo, China
PVDF hollow fiber 0.0750.05 Saveyor SVMCPM Canpure, Canada
PVDF hollow fiber 0.04 ZeeWeed 500, LEAPmbr GE, USA
PVDF hollow fiber 0.04 Memcor, MemPulse Siemens, Germany
PP & PVDF hollow fiber 0.2 Zhaojin Motian, China
PPPVDF hollow fiber 0.1–0.2 PMBRFMBR Hangzhou Creflux, China
PVC & PVDF hollow fiber 0.02 LGJ1E/1 Litree, China
HDPE hollow fiber 0.1 PoroCep Hyflux, Singapore
PTFE hollow fiber 0.1, 0.2, 0.45 Poreflon SPMW Sumitomo, Japan
PES hollow fiber 0.03 PURON PSH Koch Membrane Systems, USA
PVDF flat sheet 0.08–0.3 PEIER Jiangsu Lantian Peier, China
PVDF flat sheet 0.1 SINAP SINAP, China
PVDF flat sheet 0.08 MEMBRAY Toray, Japan
chlorinated PE flat sheet 0.2 Kubota, Japan
PVDF tubular 0.03 Airlift MBR Pentair X-Flow, Netherlands
PVDFPES tubular 0.03100 kDa BioFlow Berghof, Germany
ceramic tubular 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 JWCM Jiangsu Jiuwu Hi-Tech, China
Tab.1  Main membrane suppliers for engineering application of MBR in China
domestic companies major areas overseas companies major areas
Origin Water, Beijing municipal United Envirotech, Singapore industrial/municipal
Motimo, Tianjin municipal/industrial GE, USA municipal/industrial
Poten Environment, Beijing industrial Siemens, Germany municipal
Lucency Enviro-Tech, Beijing municipal Kubota, Japan municipal/industrial
E&E Technologies, Beijing industrial/municipal
Canpure Environment Protection Tech, Beijing municipal/industrial
Union Environtech, Sichuan industrial
Tianyi Environmental Technology, Inner Mongolia municipal
JDL Environmental Protection, Jiangxi municipal/industrial
WellE Environmental, Jiangsu landfill leachate
Tab.2  Main MBR engineering companies in China
Fig.2  Proportions of MBR treatment capacity in areas of municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, and polluted surface water treatment (data of 2011, obtained from Ref [35])
Fig.3  Geographical distribution of large-scale MBR projects (≥10000 m3·d-1) in terms of treatment capacity and project number by 2014 in China
Fig.4  Number distribution of large-scale MBR projects (≥10000 m3·d-1) based on designed capacity
MBR installation location wastewater type membrane supplier Capacity/(m3·d-1) MBR engineering companya) commissioned remark
Guangzhou Jingxi WWTP Guangdong municipal Memstar 100000 NOVO 2010 underground MBR
Wuxi Chengbei WWTP (phase IV) Jiangsu municipal Origin Water 50000 Origin Water 2010
Wuxi Chengbei WWTP (phase IV, continued) Jiangsu municipal Kubota 20000 CERI 2012 flat sheet membrane
Liaoyang Central District WWTP (upgrade) Liaoning municipal Memstar 80000 NOVO 2012
Qinghe WWTP (phase III) Beijing municipal Origin Water 150000 Origin Water 2012
Daxing Huangcun WWTP (upgrade) Beijing municipal Origin Water 120000 Origin Water 2013
Nanjing Chengdong WWTP (phase III) Jiangsu municipal Origin Water 150000 Origin Water 2013
Kunming No. 10 WWTP Yunnan municipal Origin Water 150000 Origin Water 2013 underground MBR
Zhuzhou Longquan WWTP (phase III) Hunan municipal Tianjin Motimo 100000 Tianjin Motimo 2014
Jilin City WWTP (phase I, upgrade) Jilin municipal Origin Water 150000 Origin Water 2015 (expected)
Wuhan Sanjintan WWTP (upgrade) Hubei municipal Origin Water 200000 Origin Water 2015 (expected)
Fuzhou Yangli WWTP (phase IV) Fujian municipal Memstar 200000 United Envirotech 2015 (expected)
Wenyu River water treatment plant (phase II) Beijing polluted surface water Mitsubishi Rayon 100000 Origin Water 2011
Kunming Luolonghe rainwater treatment plant Yunnan polluted surface water Origin Water 50000 Origin Water 2011
Meizhou industrial park WWTP Guangdong printed circuit board Memstar 12000 2010
Kunshan banknote printing and minting Jiangsu pulp and paper mill Kubota 9000 Poten Enviro 2011 flat sheet membrane
China Huadian Corporation Changji power plant Xinjiang power plant Asahi Kasei 12480 CHEC Water 2011
Hohhot Togtoh industrial park WWTP (upgrade) Inner Mongolia pharmaceutical Mitsubishi Rayon 20000 United Water 2011
Orient Huaqiang textile dyeing and printing Zhejiang textile dyeing Tianjin Motimo 14000 Tianjin Motimo 2012
Yangzhou Qingshan WWTP (phase II) Jiangsu chemical and municipal Hyflux 40000 Hyflux 2012
China Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group Ningxia coal chemical Canpure 36000 WBD 2013
Chengdu Qingbaijiang WWTP (upgrade) Sichuan fine chemical GE 20000 BEWG 2014
Tab.3  Representative large-scale MBR projects (≥10000 m3·d-1) for wastewater treatment in China since 2010
basic type removal preferencea) process flowb) process featurec) engineering case reference
O-MBR BOD and N H 4 + -N basic form of MBR Miyun WWTP (45000 m3·d-1), Beijing, 2006 [36]
AO-MBR BOD and TN basic form of MBR for denitrification Jinan Olympic Center plant (13000 m3·d-1), Shandong, 2010 [37]
AAO-MBR BOD, TN, and TP basic form of AAO-MBR for simultaneous N and P removal [38]
bypassing RAAO-MBR, to save carbon source for denitrification and diminish adverse impact of aerobic recirculation on the anaerobic zone Hefei Tangxihe WWTP (30000 m3·d-1), Anhui, 2011 [39]
UCT-MBR, a variant of AAO-MBR, to diminish adverse impact of aerobic recirculation on the anaerobic zone Beixiaohe WWTP (60000 m3·d-1), Beijing, 2008 [40]
bypassing UCT-MBR, to save carbon source for denitrification Wuxi Meicun WWTP (phase II) (30000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2009 [41]
MUCT-MBR, one more anoxic zone than UCT-MBR, to enhance endogenous denitrification Wuxi Chengbei WWTP (phase IV) (50000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2010 [42]
similar to MAO-MBR, a second anoxic zone after the aerobic zone to enhance endogenous denitrification Wuxi Shuofang WWTP (phase II) (20000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2009 [43,44]
an additional zone (X) after the aerobic zone, switchable between anoxic and aerobic, to increase the flexibility of process adjustment for denitrification Kunming No. 4 WWTP (60000 m3·d-1), Yunnan, 2010 [45]
Tab.4  Typical MBR processes and engineering cases for municipal wastewater treatment in China.
itema) unitb) typical range
filtration flux (submerged MBR) L·(m2·h)-1 15–25
MLSS gMLSS·L-1 8–12
MLVSS/MLSS kgMLVSS·kgMLSS-1 0.6–0.8
sludge organic loading rate kgBOD5·(kgMLSS·d)-1 0.05–0.1
total solids retention time d 10–30
recirculation ratio (A2→A1) 1–4
recirculation ratio (O→A2) 3–5
recirculation ratio (M→O) 3–6
observed yield of solids kgMLSS·kgCOD-1 0.17–0.25
synthesis yield of biomass kgMLVSS·kgCOD-1 0.28–0.67
endogenous decay coefficient d-1 0.023–0.2
maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria d-1 0.2–0.9
maximum specific ammonia utilization rate kg N H 4 + -N·(kgMLVSS·d)-1 0.11–0.15
half-velocity constant for ammonia utilization mg N H 4 + -N·L-1 2.35–2.63
specific denitrification rate kg N O 3 -N·(kgMLSS·d)-1 0.03–0.06
phosphorus content in sludge kgP·kgMLSS-1 0.02–0.06
Tab.5  Typical ranges of MBR process parameters for municipal wastewater treatment.
Fig.14  Total capital investment (a) and total footprint (b) area per capacity unit of large-scale MBR projects (≥10000 m3·d-1) for municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, and polluted surface water treatment. Sample numbers in (a): 66, 24, and 5, respectively; in (b): 55, 20, and 3, respectively
Fig.15  Operating cost of typical MBR plants for municipal wastewater treatment. Data were collected from 8 large-scale MBRs built after 2010 with stable operation. “Others” refer to the costs for employers’ salaries, equipment maintenance, water quality measurement, etc. Depreciation cost is not included here
Fig.16  Energy compositions among different process units (a) and different functions in typical MBR plants for municipal wastewater treatment (b). Data were collected from large-scale MBRs built after 2010 with stable operation. Sample numbers are 10 for total energy consumption and 6 for percentage calculation. Abbreviations: inf. = influent; pretr. = pretreatment; A1 = anaerobic zone; A2 = anoxic zone; O= aerobic zone; M= membrane zone; eff. = effluent
wastewater process flowa) MBR case reference
petroleum refinery → condit. → o/w separ. → float. → condit. → MP-MBR → China National Offshore Oil Corp. Huizhou plant (15000 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2008 [53]
petrochemical → screen. → sediment. → bioselect. → MBR → NF → disinfect. →;→ UASB → sediment. → A/O- MBR → Dayawan industrial park (25000 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2006;Pengwei PTA wastewater (10000 m3·d-1), Chongqing, 2009 [53]
coal chemical → screen. → sediment. → condit. → float. → A/O-MBR → disinfect. → Jinfeng Coal Chemical Industrial Co. (3000 m3·d-1), Shanxi, 2008 [54]
fine chemical → condit. → coagulat. → sediment. → MP-MBR → disinfect. →;→ condit. → hydrolys.-acidif. → contc. O → sediment. → MBR → PAC → Taixing industrial park (30000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2008;Xiaohu Island park (10000 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2007 [53][53]
electronic → pH condit. → coagulat. → sediment. → pH condit. → MBR → Meizhou industrial park (12000 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2010 [53]
papermaking → condit. → hydrolys.-acidif. → MBR → disinfect. → Kunshan banknote printing (9000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2011
tobacco → screen. → condit. → sediment. → hydrolys.-acidif. → MBR → China National Tabacco Corp. Xuzhou plant (2000 m3·d-1), Jiangsu, 2007
food processing → anaerob. → screen. → A/O-MBR → RO → Meihua Group (2000 m3·d-1), Hebei, 2009 [53]
slaughterhouse → condit. → o/w separ. → screen. → A1/A2/O-MBR → Fambros Group (8000 m3·d-1), Shandong, 2007 [53]
pharmaceutical → hydrolys.-acidif. → A/O-MBR → O3 → BAC → NF → Togtoh industrial park (20000 m3·d-1), Inner Mongolia, 2011
landfill leachate → anaerob. → A/O-MBR → NF → RO;→ UASB → A/O-MBR → DTRO →;→ condit. → A/O/A/O-MBR → RO →(1st concentr. → NF → RO →) (2nd concentr. → evapor.) Asuwei plant (600 m3·d-1), Beijing, 2008;Guangzhou Likeng plant (800 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2013;Guangzhou Xingfeng plant (1540 m3·d-1), Guangdong, 2012 [55][55][56]
Tab.6  Typical MBR processes and engineering cases for different industrial wastewater treatment
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