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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front Envir Sci Eng    2014, Vol. 8 Issue (2) : 151-161     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-013-0607-z
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Research progress on hydrothermal dissolution and hydrolysis of lignocellulose and lignocellulosic waste
Yan ZHAO1, Wenjing LU2, Jiajun CHEN1, Xiangfeng ZHANG1, Hongtao WANG2()
1. School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China; 2. School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Abstract

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic waste has attracted considerable attention because of its feasibility and the generation of valuable products. Previous studies have shown that pretreatment and hydrolysis are key processes for lignocellulose conversion. Hydrothermal process is a promising technique because of its efficiency to break down the lignocellulosic structures and produce fermentable hexoses. Most studies in this field have therefore focused on understanding these processes or optimizing the parameters, but commonly reported low yields of fermentable hexoses. The inability to produce high yields of fermentable hexoses is mainly attributed to inadequate information on the conversion mechanisms of lignocellulose, particularly the reaction rules of dissolution, which is a limiting step in the entire conversion process. This paper critically reviewed the progress done in the research and development of the hydrothermal dissolution and hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Principles, processes, and related studies on separate dissolution and asynchronous hydrolysis of lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose are presented. Potential research prospects are also suggested.

Keywords lignocellulosic waste      hydrothermal conversion      separate dissolution      asynchronous hydrolysis      mechanism     
Corresponding Authors: WANG Hongtao,Email:htwang@tsinghua.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 01 April 2014
 Cite this article:   
Yan ZHAO,Hongtao WANG,Wenjing LU, et al. Research progress on hydrothermal dissolution and hydrolysis of lignocellulose and lignocellulosic waste[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2014, 8(2): 151-161.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-013-0607-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2014/V8/I2/151
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Yan ZHAO
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Fig.1  Typical chromatogram of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for liquid products from cellulose
Fig.2  Batch system of combined supercritical and subcritical reaction
1 reactor; 2 thermoelement for supercritical condition; 3 thermoelement for subcritical condition; 4 salt bath for supercritical condition; 5 salt bath for subcritical condition; 6 ice-water cooler; 7 electric heating elements; 8 temperature control system
Fig.3  Flow system of combined supercritical and subcritical reaction
1 water tank; 2 material sludge tank; 3 water pump; 4 material sludge pump; 5 preheater; 6 supercritical reactor; 7 primary water cooler; 8 subcritical reactor; 9 final water cooler; 10 product collector; 11 temperature control system; 12 manometer; 13 thermoelement; 14 reducing valve; 15 safety valve
itembatch systemflow system
processing efficiencylow due to batch operationhigh due to continuous flow
heating time for materiallong due to simultaneous heating of reactor, water, and materialshort due to water preheating and constant reactor
energy consumptionlarge due to energy loss when coolingsmall due to energy recovery when cooling
condition controleasy due to independent parameters including concentration, temperature, and reaction timehard due to interaction among concentration, reaction time, and pump flow
academic valuesignificantpoor
practicabilitylittlereasonable
Tab.1  Respective characteristics of batch system and flow system for the hydrothermal conversion of lignocellulosic waste
Fig.4  Yield variation of cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, and cellopentaose hydrolysis at 300°C
Fig.5  Processes of cellulose dissolution and hydrolysis (dotted lines represent hydrogen bonds)
Fig.6  Semi-flow reaction system for the hydrothermal conversion of lignocelluloses
1 water tank, 2 water pump; 3 preheater; 4 temperature control system; 5 dissolution reactor; 6 raw material; 7 filter screen; 8 water cooler; 9 hydrolysis reactor; 10 filter; 11 product collector
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