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Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering

Front Envir Sci Eng    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (1) : 55-65     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-012-0411-1
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Particle size distributions, PM2.5 concentrations and water-soluble inorganic ions in different public indoor environments: a case study in Jinan, China
Can DONG1, Lingxiao YANG1,2(), Chao YAN1, Qi YUAN1, Yangchun YU1, Wenxing WANG1,3
1. Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China; 2. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China; 3. Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
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Abstract

In this study, we collected particles with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) from three different public indoor places (a supermarket, a commercial office, and a university dining hall) in Jinan, a medium-sized city located in northern China. Water-soluble inorganic ions of PM2.5 and particle size distributions were also measured. Both indoor and outdoor PM2.5 levels (102.3–143.8 μg·m-3 and 160.2–301.3 μg·m-3, respectively) were substantially higher than the value recommended by the World Health Organization (25 μg·m-3), and outdoor sources were found to be the major contributors to indoor pollutants. Diurnal particle number size distributions were different, while the maximum volume concentrations all appeared to be approximately 300 nm in the three indoor locations. Concentrations of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 were shown to exhibit the same variation trends for the supermarket and dining hall. For the office, PM2.5 concentrations during nighttime were observed to decrease sharply. Among others, SO42-, NH4+ and NO3- were found to be the dominant water-soluble ions of both indoor and outdoor particles. Concentrations of NO3- in the supermarket and office during the daytime were observed to decrease sharply, which might be attributed to the fact that the indoor temperature was much higher than the outdoor temperature. In addition, domestic activities such as cleaning, water usage, cooking, and smoking also played roles in degraded indoor air quality. However, the results obtained here might be negatively impacted by the small number of samples and short sampling durations.

Keywords indoor air quality      indoor/outdoor ratios      size distributions      particles with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5 μm (PM2.5)      water-soluble ions     
Corresponding Author(s): YANG Lingxiao,Email:yanglingxiao@sdu.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 01 February 2013
 Cite this article:   
Chao YAN,Qi YUAN,Yangchun YU, et al. Particle size distributions, PM2.5 concentrations and water-soluble inorganic ions in different public indoor environments: a case study in Jinan, China[J]. Front Envir Sci Eng, 2013, 7(1): 55-65.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/10.1007/s11783-012-0411-1
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fese/EN/Y2013/V7/I1/55
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Chao YAN
Qi YUAN
Yangchun YU
Wenxing WANG
Can DONG
Lingxiao YANG
siteelevationarea/m2ventilation typesampling seasonsampling periodsample number
indooroutdoor
supermarket2nd floor6300mechanicalwinterJan 31 to Feb 244
commercial office4th floor40mechanicalwinterFeb 3 to Feb 676
university dining hall1st floor2500naturalspringMar 29 to Apr 155
Tab.1  Characteristics of indoor sampling locations and sampling period
Fig.1  Time series variations of outdoor meteorological factors
Fig.1  Time series variations of outdoor meteorological factors
indoor siteindooroutdoorI/O ratio
meanminmaxmeanminmax
supermarket102.3±20.375.3119.4237.0±46.0193.8297.00.43
commercial office143.8±80.274.1290.5301.3±70.4213.8407.20.40
university dining hall123.7±63.235.7208.3160.2±70.4.30.9257.90.78
Tab.2  Indoor/outdoor PM mass concentrations of different locations (μg·m)
locationsampling timeindoorsitePM2.5 concentrationmain water-soluble ion concentration
Cl-NO3-SO42-Na+NH4+K+Mg2+Ca2+
Jinan, Chinathis worksupermarket102.37.055.9824.371.2611.782.860.341.62
Jinan, Chinathis workcommercial office143.82.9110.3930.650.5614.322.120.080.32
Jinan, Chinathis workuniversity dining hall123.71.6725.3325.220.4317.691.360.120.93
Thessaloniki, Greece[27]Apr to June, 1999museum40.50.851.775.860.461.770.910.040.93
Munich, Germany[28]Oct to Nov, 2005classroom37.40.300.901.900.400.800.100.80
Oslo, Norway[29]Mar, 2002residence7.00.300.200.400.200.100.030.050.03
Guizhou, China[30]Mar, 2008residence74.54.104.0016.003.704.701.900.905.40
Guizhou, China[30]Mar, 2008residence83.15.803.0015.906.002.705.000.405.30
Beijing, China[30]Oct 2002 to Mar, 2003supermarket19.6
Beijing, China[31]Oct 2002 to Mar 2003commercial office28.1
Hongkong, China[15]Sep 2002 to Feb 2003commercial office45.2
Prague, Czech[32]Feb 2006 to Dec 2006university dining hall13.2
Tab.3  Mean daily mass concentrations of indoor PM and water-soluble ions in Jinan and other cities in the world/(μg·m)
Fig.2  Variation trends of mass concentrations of indoor/outdoor PM and TWSI in different locations: (a) supermarket; (b) commercial office; (c) university dining hall
Fig.2  Variation trends of mass concentrations of indoor/outdoor PM and TWSI in different locations: (a) supermarket; (b) commercial office; (c) university dining hall
Fig.3  Diurnal particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the supermarket
Fig.3  Diurnal particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the supermarket
Fig.4  Diurnal, smoking, and non-smoking period particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the commercial office: (a) diurnal number size distributins; (b) diurnal volume size distributins; (c) number size distributions during the smoking and non-smoking period; (d) volume size distributions during the smoking and non-smoking period
Fig.4  Diurnal, smoking, and non-smoking period particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the commercial office: (a) diurnal number size distributins; (b) diurnal volume size distributins; (c) number size distributions during the smoking and non-smoking period; (d) volume size distributions during the smoking and non-smoking period
Fig.5  Diurnal particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the dining hall
Fig.5  Diurnal particle number and volume size distributions (10 nm to 10 μm) in the dining hall
Fig.6  Composition of indoor and outdoor water-soluble ions (SM: supermarket; OD: outdoor; OF: commercial office; DH: university dining hall)
Fig.6  Composition of indoor and outdoor water-soluble ions (SM: supermarket; OD: outdoor; OF: commercial office; DH: university dining hall)
Fig.7  Diurnal I/O ratios of major water-soluble ions: (a) supermarket; (b) commercial office; (c) university dining hall
Fig.7  Diurnal I/O ratios of major water-soluble ions: (a) supermarket; (b) commercial office; (c) university dining hall
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