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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (2) : 303-316     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-018-0746-4
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Effects of sea level rise on storm surge and waves within the Yangtze River Estuary
Yongming SHEN1,2(), Gefei DENG1, Zhihao XU3, Jun TANG1
1. State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2. Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
3. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
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Abstract

Sea level rise (SLR) can cause water depth increase (WDI) and coastal inundation (CI). By applying the coupled FVCOM+SWAN model, this study investigates the potential impacts of WDI and CI, induced by a 1.0 m SLR, on storm surge and waves within the Yangtze River Estuary. A 1.0 m WDI decreases the maximum storm surge by 0.15 m and increases the maximum significant wave height by 0.35 m. The CI effect size is smaller when compared with WDI. CI decreases the maximum storm surge and significant wave height by 0.04 and 0.07 m, respectively. In the near-shore area, WDI significantly alters the local hydrodynamic environment, thereby stimulating changes in maximum storm surges and wave heights. Low-lying regions are negatively impacted by CI. Conversely, in deep-water areas, the relative change in water depth is minimal and the effect of CI is gradually enhanced. The combined effect of WDI and CI decreases the maximum surge by 0.31 m and increases the maximum significant wave height by 0.21 m. As a result, CI may be neglected when designing deep-water infrastructures. Nonetheless, the complex interactions between adoption and neglect of CI should be simulated to achieve the best seawall flood control standards and design parameters.

Keywords sea level rise      FVCOM+SWAN      coastal inundation      Yangtze River Estuary     
Corresponding Authors: Yongming SHEN   
Just Accepted Date: 29 November 2018   Online First Date: 08 April 2019    Issue Date: 16 May 2019
 Cite this article:   
Yongming SHEN,Gefei DENG,Zhihao XU, et al. Effects of sea level rise on storm surge and waves within the Yangtze River Estuary[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2019, 13(2): 303-316.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-018-0746-4
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2019/V13/I2/303
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Yongming SHEN
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Jun TANG
Fig.1  Model information. (a) Triangular mesh in the study domain; (b) topography and verification stations within the Yangtze River Estuary; (c) track and verification stations of typhoon Haikui.
Fig.2  Comparison between simulated and observed tidal levels at various stations (comparison begins at 00:00 on July 10, 2005). (a) Zhongjun; (b) Luchaogang; (c) Luhuashan; (d) Daishan; (e) Shenjiamen; (f) Meishan.
Fig.3  Comparison between simulated and observed tidal currents at JS1 station (a–d) and SH4 station (e–h) (comparison begins at 00:00 on July 10, 2005).
Fig.4  Comparison between simulated and observed wave height at (a) QF 204; (b) QF 205; (c) QF 208 stations during typhoon Haikui (comparison begins at 16:00 on August 5, 2012).
Fig.5  Coastal inundation induced by SLR. (a) 1.0 m SLR; (b) 2.0 m SLR; (c) 3.0 m SLR.
Fig.6  Coastal inundation induced by 1.0 m SLR within the Yangtze River Estuary.
Scenario name Water depth Coastal line
Scenario 1 (S1) Original water depth Basic coast
Scenario 2 (S2) 1.0 m WDI Basic coast
Scenario 3 (S3) Original water depth Inundated coast
Scenario 4 (S4) 1.0 m WDI Inundated coast
Tab.1  Scenario configuration
Results processing Description Explanation
S2 – S1 Single factor effect (WDI) Absolute value presents the strength while symbol presents the change tendency
S3 – S1 Single factor effect (CI) Absolute value presents the strength while symbol presents the change tendency
S4 – S1 Combined effect (WDI and CI) Absolute value presents the strength while symbol presents the change tendency
|S2 – S1| – |S3 – S1| Compare the strength between the two factors Difference above zero implies the stronger effect of WDI than CI
S4 – S3 – S2+ S1 Quantify the linear relationship between the two factors Difference near zero implies a better linear relationship between the two factors
Tab.2  Description and explanation of results processing
Scenario name Maximum storm surge/m Maximum significant wave height/m
S1 3.13 8.30
S2 2.98 8.65
S3 3.09 8.23
S4 2.82 8.51
Tab.3  Maximum storm surge and maximum significant wave height in four scenarios
Fig.7  Distribution of maximum storm surges within the Yangtze River Estuary. (a) Basic scenario S1; (b) 1.0 m WDI scenario S2; (c) CI scenario S3; (d) 1.0 m WDI and CI scenario S4.
Fig.8  Strength comparison and linear relationship between the effect of WDI and CI on maximum storm surges within the Yangtze River Estuary. (a) Strength comparison, Δsurges= |surges in S2 ? surges in S1| ? |surges in S3 ? surges in S1|; (b) linear relationship, Δsurges= surges in S4 ? surges in S3 ? surges in S2+ surges in S1.
Fig.9  Sketch map of the three tracing paths. (a) Points along tracing path A; (b) points along tracing path B; (c) points along tracing path C.
Fig.10  Storm surges along the three tracing paths in four scenarios and their relationships. The first column (a, d, g): storm surges along paths in four scenarios; the second column (b, e, h): effects of WDI, CI and the combined factors; the third column (c, f, i): linear relationship between WDI and CI.
Fig.11  Distribution of maximum significant wave heights within the Yangtze River Estuary. (a) Basic scenario S1. (b) 1.0 m WDI scenario S2. (c) CI scenario S3. (d) 1.0 m WDI and CI scenario S4.
Fig.12  Strength comparison and linear relationship between the effect of WDI and CI on maximum significant wave heights (Hs) within the Yangtze River Estuary. (a) Strength comparison, ΔHs= | Hs in S2 ? Hs in S1| ? | Hs in S3 ? Hs in S1|. (b) Linear relationship, ΔHs= Hs in S4 ? Hs in S3 ? Hs in S2+ Hs in S1.
Fig.13  Significant wave heights (Hs) along the three paths in four scenarios and their relationships. The first column shows significant wave heights along paths in four scenarios (a, d, g); second column shows the effects of WDI, CI, and the combined factors (b, e, h); and the third column shows the linear relationship between WDI and CI. (c, f, i)
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