This paper is a comprehensive study on the progress in research on Chinese urbanization. On the basis of the concept and connotation of Chinese urbanization defined by Chinese scholars, the paper systematically collects the research results on the issues concerning urbanization in China from the different approaches of demography, geography, city planning, economics and history, reviewing the process of research on Chinese urbanization made both domestically and internationally. In this paper, the domestic studies fall into five periods as follows: the initial period of research on urbanization in China (1978-1983); the period with both domestically constructed and borrowed theories on urbanization (1984-1988); the period of research on leading urbanization factors and localization (1989-1997); the period with the research greatly promoted by the government (1998-2004); and the period featuring flourishing studies on the science of urbanization in China (2005 till today). In contrast, the overseas research on Chinese urbanization can be divided into three periods: the period studying the history of urbanization in China (before the 1970s); the systematic research on Chinese urbanization (1970-1999); and the comprehensive research on Chinese urbanization (2000 till today). The paper focuses on the key results of research on Chinese urbanization, including nine issues as follows: the guidelines and road for urban development in China, the features of Chinese urbanization, the mechanism driving the growth of Chinese urbanization, the process of Chinese urbanization, the spatial patterns of Chinese urbanization, the urbanization in rural areas in China, the comparison of urbanization in China and other countries, and globalization and regional urbanization.
This paper reviews the research, policy proposals and recommendations, implemented policies, and programs on sustainable transportation since 2000, with regional focus on the US, using the UK (related to the European Union if appropriate), and Canada as references. The paper finds that the concept of sustainable transportation has been given increased attention in all places. There are significant variances between the research, policy proposal, and implementation. Efforts made towards sustainable transportation, and the focus of the efforts at entities within and outside the US also vary notably. As a whole, the US did more research on sustainable transportation than the reference countries and it even undertook several studies of sustainable transportation practices in West Europe. The US federal government is less aggressive than its foreign counterparts in marketing and implementing sustainable transportation. This is evidenced by a lack of overarching federal policy (mandate) on and a universal working definition for sustainable transportation, and absence of a gateway and dedicated website to market and disseminate the idea of sustainable development in general and sustainable transportation in particular.
Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an emerging modeling approach. In the past two decades, agent-based models have been increasingly adapted by social scientists, especially scientists in urban and geospatial studies, as an effective paradigm for framing the underlying problems of complex and dynamic processes. As a result, the literature of ABM research is growing rapidly, covering a diverse range of topics. This paper presents a systematic literature review of ABM research, and discusses both theoretical issues such as ABM definition and architecture, and practical issues such as ABM applications and development platforms. A comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography is presented.
Most of the local cities of Japan are suffering from the depopulation in central district (C.D.). In Okayama city, the government had induced some strategies such as supply more condominiums for local revitalization since 2000. From the Basic Resident Register of Okayama, the population in C.D. Okayama has increased recently. This study has the goal to clarify the situation of condominium supply in this district by an investigation. Compared with the result of a same survey in C.D. Kyoto, the following findings are confirmed: population recovery is happening in the central district in both of the 2 cities. The dimension of the condominiums in Okayama is larger than that in Kyoto. The average dimension of the condominiums in Okayama is 14 stories building with 61 units of 110 m2. Contrastingly, that in Kyoto is 11 storied building with 59 units of 82 m2. Most of the condominiums in C.D. Kyoto are located closely to the railway or subway station, while those in C.D. Okayama are randomly located, because of the high dependence of automobile traffic. The previous usages of the sites of condominiums in Okayama are parking, housing and financial institute, and in Kyoto they are parking, shop or business building.
This paper reviewed child behavior in Chinese residential landscapes. A field survey was used to investigate place characteristics, whereas fixed-point observation and visualization records were utilized to analyze child behavior. Children were then classified into two categories, namely, those with action capacity and those with little capacity. Based on the classification and comparative analysis of place characteristics, along with the quantitative and visualized analysis of child behavior, the relationship between these two aspects was determined, and the effect of spatial elements in the selected residential areas on such a relationship was clarified. Additionally, the designing of a comprehensive landscape space that satisfies children’s needs was also discussed. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Waterside is the element that most significantly affects child behavior. Children who can act on their own prefer to play along the waterside. (2) Open spaces attract children with action capacity, whereas children with little capacity tend to choose more private spaces. (3) Despite the presence of facilities for various activities, an extremely open space or one that is separated by a road still affects child behavior. (4) A comprehensive space with a water landscape, fitness facilities, high accessibility, and a number of cultural events may significantly affect child behavior. Both types of children were found to enjoy a place with such characteristics. Therefore, the evaluation of residential landscape space should be integrated with landscape design.