In the period between the idealistic vision of the ‘Reshapingsociety’ and Thatcherism, in the so-called ‘SwingingLondon’, the second wave of modernism is facing the demands and the quantities of bombed cities. The architects of that season, moved by political ideals and interpreting the cultural ferment, have been responsible for shaping the city on the collective dreams and aspirations of the society and for forging the identity of London as unique experience in the international panorama. This paper focuses on the spatial relations between city and home, how they raised in that specific historical context, in which form they realized, and what are the architectural implications for current design culture. The methodology, based both on the literatu rereview and on the graphic comparison of six case-studies, is articulated in four steps. First, the six case-studies are selected according to specific criteria. Second, the sociohistorical background is reported. Third, the cases are shortly introduced using text descriptions and graphic tools. Fourth, the cases are compared. This process leads to the definition of four transversal architectural items: the density, the settlement pattern, the basement, and the threshold, intended as elements able to raise connections between past and contemporary design culture.
This study focuses on the spatial and mutable characteristics of the “mat-hybrid housing” (MHH), aspecific type of public housing. Analyses were conducted specifically on the period between 1960 and 1980 and two particular case studies, namely, Nuovo Villaggio Matteotti in Terni, Italy, and Odhams Walk in London. The qualitative research design of this study is based on the methodology called AIFAD (an abbreviation for Archives, Interviews, Fieldwork, Analytic diagrams, and Drawings). The goal of this paper is to identify, define, and extract possible strategies fo rimplementing MHH, which can improve urban growth through compact schemes. These objectives can be achieved by adopting the schemes in such manner as suburban sprawl is prevented, the densities of existing cities are intensified, the possibility of changing the concept of domestic space is tested, and the identity, history, and tenant participation in each city is strengthened.Through this approach,the MHH can be effected.
The design and construction of houses normally require an architect's input. However, architects are increasingly being marginalized in these projects, and their roles are constantly being invaded by others. Despite repeated institutional interventions toward remedying this phenomenon, signs are not abating. This article examines the complexity of this phenomenon to explain the inadequacy of institutional interventions to address the problem. This article conceptualizes the phenomenon of marginalization and role invasion as a super wicked problem with six key features. First, the problem has a difficult definition. Second, the solution involves a large structural and economic burden.Third, time is of the essence. Fourth, multiple stakeholders attempting to solve the problem are part of the cause. Fifth, institutional interventions addressing the issue are weakorill-equipped. Sixth, institutional interventions discount the future irrationally. The implications of this conceptualization for institutional intervention and research are discussed.
This study investigates the characteristics of spatial elements and structure in a multi-cultural traditional settlement in DeggerCounty, Sichuan Province, in the Tibetan area of China. This study aims to clarify the geometric spatial representation of traditional settlements. The geometric features of their settlement plans are compared using mathema-tical analysis after examining the spatial arrangement of four typical settlements. Results indicate that the settlement structure has strong centrality. The spatial structure character-istics and proposed spatial models of traditional settlements in this area are discussed to aim for the results to contribute to new village planning and preserve a traditional settlement heritage.
Joglo and Limasan are traditional Javanese architecture structures and the most preferred vernacular dwellings in Java. These houses spread to other areas through Central Java and the Yogyakarta Province of Indonesia. Given the local characteristics, the architecture of these structures is not merely identical in some aspects but is also based on the people and the natural environment.This study examines how environmental synchronization related to vernacular sustainability can be achieved based on the regional diversity between Joglo and Limasan in Central Java for contemporary custom. The architectural features of form, size, orientation, materials, and openings from samples of 10 areas in rural Central Java are compared to discover their distinctive sustainability methods. This study aims to prove the capability of the Javanese to synchronize their house in various ways. The reasons behind such synchronization are explored from both natural and social aspects to gain an enhanced understanding of the disparity in vernacul ararchitecture in relation with the environment. Results indicate that within the same category, houses in each area show their indigenous architecture as result of synchronization with the local nature and the social circumstances of the people.
From modern urban perspectives, indigenous housing practices are regarded as undeveloped, backward, and require improvements. They may be valid for measuring on the basis of standards alien to the communities. However, these perceptions have obfuscated the appreciation and potential adoption of holistic, culturally relevant, and traditionally tested approaches to planning and housing that have sustained communities for centuries.
Sri Lankan indigenous settlements have been founded on principles and understanding acquired through the wisdom of Buddhism. For the Sri Lankan indigenous, sustainability has been an intrinsic accompaniment to everyday life, unlike articulated modern discourses. However, these traditions exert minimal benefits to recent housing practices, and researchers are looking elsewhere to develop mechanisms to infuse sustainability as a recently discovered issue of significance.
The present study examines the principles underlying several indigenous settlements in Sri Lanka through close observations supported by documente devidence and demonstrates their validity and appropriateness for contemporary planning practices. This study argues that approaches to sustainability should be generated holistically from within rather than from the outside and offers several propositions that can redirect the contemporary housing and planning practices.
Changes in spaces for cooking and eating are fundamental to modern architecture. Proposals and studies conducted in America from the 19th century and in Europe mainly from the 1920s have caused architectural debates on the nature of the kitchen space, i.e., to achieve either spaces that are organized and efficient or spaces for working and living. Modern architecture has transformed the kitchen and determined its appearance throughout the 20th century. The intensity of this transformation has depended on social, technical, and architectural contexts. In this study, we focus on how modern architectural approaches influenced dwellings in Barcelona, Spain between the 1920s and the 1950s. The study demonstrates that changes did not occur regularly and were limited to the incorporation of certain services or technological improvements. During this period, cooking and eating spaces were not considered in depth and were treated as areas of secondary importance within dwellings. Changes only became significant from the 1950s onward, when economic improvements, technological innovations, the housing problem, and the gradual arrival of Western cultural references changed the values of the sespaces.
This article presents a methodology for the integration of building performance simulation (BPS) into the writing of architectural history. While BPS tools have been developed mainly for design purposes, their current maturity enables to reliably apply them in simulating the performance of past buildings, even when these buildings have been significantly modified or demolished. The possibility to virtually reconstruct the performance of past buildings can help us to overcome the existing knowledge gap in the understanding of the role played by building performance and building performance research through the history of architecture and can therefore promote the intelligent and successful application of environmental features in contemporary architecture. The potential of the proposed methodology is presented here using a historical case study from 1960s Israel (a university building in Tel Aviv), in which climatic considerations were anexplicit part of the entire design process. The original thermal performance of the building was analysed by employing the EnergyPlus simulation engine, and the simulation results were used for evaluating the climatic impact of certain design decisions, comparing them with the proclaimed design goals and the original intentions of the architects.
Although gradual, the changes in the weather patterns are also noticeable and impactful to architectural design. If the local microclimate is taken into account early in the conceptual stage of design, the longevity of the ultimate structure can be greatly enhanced, despite challenging environmental factors. Parametric designing enables to discover the optimal architectural shape based on specific weather data. The paper intends to investigate how this design approach, coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, can be used to create a wind-induced architecture. Both the benefits and the limitations of this approach are explored in detail. The interaction between an architectural shape and wind flow is tested in a study called ‘FlowBrane’. The process of (1) designing a parametrically changeable geometry, (2) testing its behavior in the wind, and (3) evaluating the results allows looping back to the initial geometric design, continuing to improve the design and ultimately the performance of the architecture in the specific wind conditions of the chosen site. However, the need to test multiple geometries separately and to adjust the wind simulation for each test (and for every wind direction) remains a disadvantage that should be addressed in further research.
This work examined the evidence-based design (EBD) and post-occupancy research of hospital healing gardens. The lack of statutory design guidelines raises concerns on how such gardens are created and whether they meet the intended design purpose. This issue is particularly important for hospitals because a neutral or even a negative effect on users can be generated. A systematic analysis of the literature in two databases (Scopus and Web of Science) was undertaken. Results showed that pre- and post-occupancy research findings on hospital healing garden design are sparse and design recommendations vary among users. Despite the lack of research on the design of healing gardens, the review showed that while post-occupancy research findings evaluate the effectiveness of design recommendations, pre-occupancy research findings, combined with site analysis, constitute a traditional approach followed in landscape architecture practice and determine the site and user features that must be addressed for each hospital. Pre- and post-research findings must be considered in the design process to createa “successful” healing garden. A summary of EBD recommendations for different users is presented, and the need to enrich the existing amount of EBD recommendations ishighlighted.
For a city with a car based transportation system and a highway within the system, the highway has a negative impact on the city's skyline and landscape. The Seoul Metropolitan Government has decided to regenerate rather than to dismantle the old overpass. This is one way to recycle old highways as attempted by other cities. This study has assessed the Seoul Station Overpass regeneration project, namely Seoullo 7017, in terms of the space utilization, barrier free design, amenities and accessibility. As fundamental research on the overpass regeneration, this study provides the necessary information and experience to other similar projects.
Graduation project courses refer to the culmination of the learning experiences of higher education. These courses consolidate the disciplinary knowledge gained during architectural education while they integrate most of the learning outcomes of a program, which are intended to prepare students for their transition to the profession of architecture. The educational methods of these courses require constant attention, regular review, and continuous development to remain consistent with the changing standards of the profession given the significance of these courses. The problem lies in the diversity and controversy of these methods, thereby implying inconsistency in the best practices. In this study, several questions are raised in terms of the nature of these courses, enrollment criteria, topic selection, learning experience, and assessment methods. This study aims to investigate the best practices of managing, supervising, and assessing architectural graduation projects to provide guidelines for establishing and/or developing these courses. An analytical deductive methodology is adopted. This methodology is supported by a survey of a sample of 105 worldwide academic architects and is structured into four sections, namely, the analysis of the components of graduation projects, the survey and its procedures, the quantitative findings of the survey, and a discussion of the issues and results. This study draws conclusions to its research questions, thereby extending its influence on the quality of architectural programs and the benefits for individuals who are concerned with their development.
Vitality is a quality that makes a public space operational and attractive throughout the day in relation to ongoing activities. This parameter can be evaluated through measures such as collective people presence, mixed-use functions, diversity of activities, and other related supportive physical elements. The aim of this research is to evaluate women's communal life in terms of vitality measures within public spaces. The commercial setting of Isfahan's traditional bazaar was selected as the study area. To enhance the credibility of the results, several data collection methods, for example, semi-structured individual interviews (n = 24), semi-structured focused group interviews (five groups including 28 middle-aged women), direct observation, snap photography, and unobtrusive behavioral observation of women in communal life within the selected study area, were employed. To analyze the collected data, qualitative content and descriptive analyses were used. Our results indicate that by increasing the vitality of a public space through its related measures, women's presence will grow, and through this growth, the quality of their communal life would be enhanced.