Mar 2016, Volume 5 Issue 1

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    Ashraf A. ELMokadem,Naglaa A. Megahed,Dina S. Noaman

    The renewed interest that is being paid by architects, project developers and local governments to integrate wind turbines with buildings is mainly required a framework to unify much data, criteria and variables to ease the design process to many architects. Therefore, this paper introduces and elaborates the systematic framework towards the efficient integration of wind technologies into new building. Moreover, it evaluates the framework effectiveness by comparing the current status of wind technologies integration into a building with the suggested status if the framework is followed.

    Deni Ruggeri,Deven Young

    Critics have pointed at new technologies as culprits in the decline of civic life, neighboring and social capital construction in Western societies. When applied to community design and planning processes, technologies can empower residents to actively engage in decision-making, foster connections across social groups, with positive consequences on life and socialization in public spaces. What kind of participation do technologies foster? And is it the kind that bridges social and ideological divides?

    The 2012 community design process for Hawthorne Park in Medford, Oregon illustrates many of the challenges and opportunities connected to the use of new technologies in design. In the process, technologies were instrumental in enlisting a larger-than-usual number of residents to participate in the design of the park. Blogs and online questionnaires were successful in gathering people's thoughts on the design choices being made, but also favored a limited, intermittent form of engagement. The results are synthesized in principles for the successful integration of web-based technologies in future community design efforts: adaptability, full participation, nuanced participation and the need for links to the physical realm.

    Xingping Wang,Pan Hu,Yi Zhu

    Urban fringe area is the most important space for city development. It includes several complicated elements, such as population, space, and management organization. On the basis of local population attributes in the city fringe area combined with people’s movement characteristics in time and space, this article reclassifies basic public service facilities and discusses the relationship between facility layout and housing, employment, and commuter transportation. Through a questionnaire survey in Qiaobei District of the urban fringe area in Nanjing and on the basis of comparative analysis, we discuss the impact factor on the choice of housing, urban services, and the tolerance of commuting time. Our findings indicate mutual promoting and restricting connections among living, employment, and services. Workers’ living situation determines their daily behavior, such as dining, shopping, and entertainment. Furthermore, different income levels have a great influence on residents’ choices with regard to places to live and develop their careers

    Satish Kumar,V.K. Bansal

    Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building isgenerally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS) largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineers select a site based on their judgment, knowledge, and experience, but issues related to site safety are generally ignored. This study reviewed the existing literature on site selection techniques, building codes, and approaches of existing standards to identify various aspects crucial for SSS in hilly regions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify various aspects that construction professionals consider critical for SSS. This study explored the application of geographic information systems (GIS) in modeling the locational and topographical aspects to identify areas of suitability. A GIS-based methodology for locating a safe site that satisfies various spatial safety aspects was developed.

    Astrid Kusumowidagdo,Agus Sachari,Pribadi Widodo

    Atriums as quasi-internal public spaces in shopping centers play an essential role as an identity provider and offer spatial orientation in shopping center architecture. This study aims to examine the significant factors of atrium design, which can provide a sense of place for shopping center visitors.

    The research was conducted with the sequential exploratory method, which involved a qualitative study, followed by a quantitative study. The objects of this research weret wo shopping centers located in the two largest cities in Indonesia, namely, Gandaria City Mall in Jakarta and Ciputra Worldin Surabaya. A total of 43 informants were a part of the qualitative data collection, and 350 respondents served as survey participants. The survey research shows that the design factors considered by visitors at the Gandaria City Mall are atrium legibility, atrium decoration, event decoration, social image and interaction, and event ambience, whereas the visitors at Ciputra World considered atrium legibility, socia limage and interaction, atrium ambience,and atrium decoration.

    Young-Seo Park,Sungil Ham

    This study identifies the spatial characteristics and relationships of each used space according to the multiplex type.In this study, multiplexes are classified according to screen rooms and circulation systems, and each used space is quantitatively analyzed. The multiplex type based on screen rooms and moving line systems influences the relationship and characteristics of each used space in various ways. In particular,the structure of the used space of multiplexes has a significant effect on profit generation and audience convenience.

    Shatha Malhis

    Mamluk sultans were known for their patronage of the arts and architecture. Their educational institutions were among the wide array of architectural projects that linked them as ruling elites to the religious scholars of their times. Their tombs were placed in a mausoleum attached to their educational–religious complexes to attest to their legacy. The evolution of their buildings such that both educational and memorial functions are integrated with the dense surroundings is scrutinized through chronological–spatial analysis. The configuration of the built form, the disposition of its boundaries, its patterns of accessibility, and its visual properties are the features that present the buildings to one’s experience and bring certain perceptions into play. In this study, various spatial descriptor tools of space syntax are employed to analyze the data of 14 Mamluk examples(1260–1517A.D.) and capture the differences in the experience where the expression is preserved. Analyses of the configurational characteristics, axial attributes, visibility structures, and isovists highlight how the spatial and formal properties of the layouts were used to express certain representational relationships. The advantages of combining different spatial investigations allows for understanding historical design principles and how the geometry of forms could hide in its abstract rules, conceptual and perceptual qualities.

    Weijun He,Shi Hu,Lifang Ji

    Xiaonan Garden is the back garden at the Weng family’s former residence, a famed mansion in Jiangnan. Various architectural colored paintings in the Jiangnan style, including a rare paster colored painting, are preserved in the garden. This study examines the wooden support, pigments, and structure of the painting and conducts a series of conservation experiments in situ and in the laboratory. Several conservation problems, such as the manually brushed lime, re-adherence of flaking painting layers, and consolidation of gold foil, were solved, and good results were obtained. Virtual recovery provided a solidfoundation for protection and example of research on architectural colored paintings in Jiangnan.

    Hanifi Binici,Selim Kapur

    Al-Andalus mortar is an ancient binding material (lime mortar) that was used for centuries in numerous historical buildings in Al-Andalus,Granada (Spain).The physico-chemical and microscopic properties of Al-Andalusmortars in Granada were studied as part of an investiga-tion into the mineral raw materials present in the territory of Spain.Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of eight main types of mortars were performed to show the presence of calcite, gypsum, quartz, and muscovite minerals with organic fibers. Chemical analyses of the specimens showed that high SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 contents yielded high values of hydraulicity and cementation indices. A significant result of this study was that mortars with high hydraulicity and cementation indices have high mechanical strengths.This characteristic may be the main reason for the earthquake resistance of the historical Alhambra Palace.

    Runjiao Liu,Difei Jiang,Lei Shi

    Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students,evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building's layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore,to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two differen ttypes of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order.The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students' evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

    Qairuniza Roslan,Siti Halipah Ibrahim,Rohaida Affandi,Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi,Azhaili Baharun

    Increase of indoor temperature compared with outdoor temperature is amajor concern in modern house design. Occupants suffer from this uncomfortable condition because of over-heating indoor temperature. Poor passive design causes heat to be trapped, which influences the rise in indoor temperature. The upper part, which covers the area of the roof, is the most critical part of the house that is exposed to heat caused by high solar radiation and high emissivity levels. During daytime, the roof accumulates heat, which increases the indoor temperature and affects the comfort level of the occupants. To maintain the indoor temperature within the comfort level, most house designs usually depend on mechanical means by using fans or air conditioning systems. The dependence on amechanical ventilation system could lead to additional costs for itsinstallation, operation, and maintenance. Thus, this study concentrates on reviews on passive design and suggests recommendations for future developments. New proposals or strategies are proposed to improve the current passive design through ventilated and cool roof systems. It is possible to achieve the comfort level inside a house throughout the day by reducing the transmitted heat into the indoor environment and eliminating the internal hot air. These recommendations could become attractive strategies in providing a comfortable indoor temperature to the occupants as well as inminimizing energy consumption.

    Adetokunbo Oluwole Ilesanmi

    This paper explored through a literatu rereview, the domains of research in Architecture and the nature of doctoral research, with a view to contributing to the evolving rese archagenda in the Nigerian context. The research method involved a descriptive and thematic analysis of the titles and abstracts of complete ddoctoral theses in Architecture in Nigeria, in the last 26 years (1990–2015), complemented by semi-structured interviews with six key informants.The study revealed an emphasis on Housing-related topics (34%) relative to other research modules, such as' History and Theory' (20%) and 'Design and Production' (18%). It also reflected the limited coverage and scope of current research, relative to the global terrain, as evidenced in the article titles and contents of 45 Architecture-related Journals.The results of the interviews indicated the strong influence of supervisors'areas of interest in the choices of thesis titles. It highlighted reasons for the perceived focus on Housing,which reflect its unique place and multi-disciplinary nature.It concluded that extending the boundaries of architectu ralresearch at the doctoral level could be beneficial to the discipline and profession in Nigeria in order to align with global trends, while keeping cognizance of the local contexts.