Humanization is not only a new concept and value-oriented, but also an ever-increasing positive phenomena in international law. Contemporary international law has been contributing to the establishment and improvement of global peace and development order for the co-existence among States on the one hand, and making endeavors to the formation and maintenance of humanizing order,which is both “individual-oriented” and “humankind-oriented”. Such a humanizing phenomenon undoubtedly represents the advanced trend of international law, enriches its contents, updates some of its classic branches and impacts on the basic principle of reciprocity on which it is created and developed. However, the humanization of international law could not have taken shape without common accords among States by means of either treaties or customary rules; and without cooperation among States, the humanistic value of international law can never become true no matter how sublime it is.
Death penalty is the most effective deterrence to grave crimes, which has been the key basis for the State to retain death penalty. In fact, either in legislation or in execution, death penalty can not produce the special deterrent effect as expected. With respect to this issue, people tend to conduct normative exploration from the perspective of ordinary legal principles or the principle of human rights, which is more speculative than convincing. Correct interpretation based on the existing positive analysis and differentiation based on human nature which sifts the true from the false will not only help end the simple, repetitive and meaningless arguments regarding the basis for the existence of death penalty, but also help understand the rational nature of both the elimination and the preservation of death penalty, so as to define the basic direction towards which the State should make efforts in controlling death penalty in the context of promoting social civilization.
Suffrage is not a right “recognized” by the Constitution but “created” by people through the Constitution, which is a right of the closest relationship with the people’s sovereignty. It is both a right and a power, where the attribute of right is manifested in that it can be waived with the nature of interest and will, and the attribute of power is manifested in that it can determine the interest and destiny of candidates. However, no attribute is complete. Suffrage is an individual right rather than a collective right, with indirect relationship with the state power but direct relationship with the “holders” of state power, creating them and in turn influencing the state power.
Through the analysis on three typical cases, it is believed why courts rarely make judgments directly based on the review criteria of “abuse of power” pursuant to article 54 of the Administrative Litigation Law is mostly that the relevant legal provisions are not clear. Besides, in hearings, judges are more inclined to use “conversion techniques”. Meanwhile, it is further revealed of the issues existing in the substantive review of courts.
Regional economic cooperation and multilateral cooperation of competition policies are regarded as two of the most important topics in international communities, both of which have a very close relationship, i.e., the former is an important path to the latter, and the latter is usually a critical topic of the former. Among the existing regional cooperation mechanism of competition policies are the three most typical modes, i.e., APEC’s open cooperation, NAFTA’s procedural law cooperation and EU’s substantive law cooperation. While taking initiatives to participate in multilateral cooperation of competition policies, China shall grasp the situation of current multilateral cooperation of competition policies, and follow the orderliness of its development, i.e., a step-by-step process of cooperation from nonbinding to binding, from domestic law to international law, and from fundamental to procedural law and to substantive law.
The methodological basis of legal cytology is empirical positivism, i.e., the social empirical investigation method is employed to make a quantitative analysis on legal research papers. Cytology has limitation in methodology, behind which a complicated “knowledge-power” structure exists. Considering the matter in China’s present legal citation researches, the real quality of legal papers shall not be evaluated by the citation rate simply, but establishing a localized academic evaluation system to scale it comprehensively.
Though China’s present multi-level legal rules have provided necessary guidelines to assumption of losses from unauthorized transactions in e-banking business, such problems as lack of cohesion among legal documents, unified processing of clients, lack of clear principles of imputation, and disconnection between legal provisions and practices have in fact constrained the in-depth development of e-banking business. Thus, correct philosophies shall be adhered to and carried out on the basis of dialectic criticism and meanwhile, the specific institutional designs shall be further improved.
The contingent governance theory based on state-contingent ownership has exerted an important impact on economic academia, and its application in the field of company law is also of significant value. The lack of internal restraint mechanism and public supervision of limited liability companies makes it feasible to implement contingent governance. Under the mechanism of contingent governance, creditors of a limited liability company may intervene in its governance. The right of intervention is mainly reflected in three aspects, i.e., (1) mandatory debt-for-equity swap, (2) obligation of the actual controller to creditors when the limited liability company is on the edge of insolvency, and (3) creditor’s right of objection with respect to the decision of corporate substantial business.
The process of indirect listing overseas of enterprises can easily result in wealth outflow, which has imposed a negative impact on the development of security market, the order of money market and the increase of tax revenue in China. Therefore, the government should exercise necessary regulation on the wealth outflow during indirect listing overseas, and treat state-owned enterprises and private-owned enterprises differently. The fundamental solution to this issue should start from improving domestic financing conditions, improving regulatory system, realizing equal treatment for enterprises and strengthening the legal protection of private property.