Please wait a minute...

Frontiers in Energy

Front Energ    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (2) : 112-121     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-012-0186-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Harvesting biomechanical energy in the walking by shoe based on liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics
Dan DAI1, Jing LIU2(), Yixin ZHOU1
1. Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing 100190, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing 100190, China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Download: PDF(11305 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

A liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics generation system (LMMGS) was proposed and demonstrated in this paper for collecting parasitic power in shoe while walking. Unlike the conventional shoe-mounted human power harvesters that use solid coil and gear mechanism, the proposed system employs liquid metal (Ga62In25Sn13) as energy carrier, where no moving part is requested in magnetohydrodynamics generators (MHGs). While walking with the LMMGS, the foot alternately presses the two liquid metal pumps (LMPs) which are respectively placed in the front and rear of the sole. As a result, the liquid metal in the LMPs (LMP I and II) is extruded and flows through the MHGs (MHG I and II) in which electricity is produced. For a comparison, three types of LMMGSs (LMMGS A, B and C) were built where all the parts are the same except for the LMPs. Furthermore, performances of these LMMGSs with different volume of injected liquid metal were tested respectively. Experimental results reveal that both the output voltage and power of the LMMGS increase with the volume of injected liquid metal and the size of the LMPs. In addition, a maximum output power of 80 mW is obtained by the LMMGS C with an efficiency of approximately 1.3%. Given its advantages of no side effect, light weight, small size and reliability, The LMMGS is well-suited for powering the wearable and implantable micro/nano device, such as wearable sensors, drug pumps and so on.

Keywords human energy harvesting      liquid metal      wearable magnetohydrodynamics generator      parasitic power in shoe     
Corresponding Authors: LIU Jing,Email:jliubme@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 June 2012
 Cite this article:   
Dan DAI,Jing LIU,Yixin ZHOU. Harvesting biomechanical energy in the walking by shoe based on liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics[J]. Front Energ, 2012, 6(2): 112-121.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/10.1007/s11708-012-0186-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fie/EN/Y2012/V6/I2/112
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Dan DAI
Jing LIU
Yixin ZHOU
Fig.1  Structure of LMMGS
(a) LMMGS in shoe; (b) LMMGS individual
Fig.2  Schematic of the working principle for LMMGS while walking
(a) LMMGS in shoe while forefoot strikes on LMP I and heel off LMP II in shoe; (b) LMMGS individual while heel strikes on LMP II and forefoot off LMP I in shoe; (c) force analysis of LMMGS individual
Fig.3  Structure of MHG
Fig.4  Changes of output voltage with and
Fig.5  Experimental prototype.
LMPDimension (Inner diameter×Outer diameter×Length )/mm3
LMP I6.8×9×155
LMP II6.8×9×165
Tab.1  Dimensions of LMPs in LMMGS A
LMPDimension (Inner diameter×Outer diameter×Length)/mm3
LMP I8×12×160
LMP II8×12×170
Tab.2  Dimensions of LMPs in LMMGS B
Volume percentage of injected liquid metal/%Mass of injected liquid metal/gThe total volume of LMMGS A/mm3Mass of LMMGS A without liquid metal/g
6050.914364.9170
7059.4
8067.9
9076.4
Tab.3  Mass of the liquid metal with different injected volumes in LMMGS A
Volume percentage of injected liquid metal/%Mass of injected liquid metal/gThe total volume of LMMGS B/mm3Mass of LMMGS B without liquid metal/g
6068.519328.6180
7080.0
8091.4
90102.8
Tab.4  Mass of liquid metal with different injected volumes in LMMGS B
Fig.6  Changes of open-circuit voltage with time in LMMGS A when the volume percentages of injected liquid metal () are 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively
(a) =60%; (b) =70%; (c) =80%; (d) =90%
Fig.7  Changes of output power of LMMGS A with a load of 0.01 ? when the volume percentages of injected liquid metal () are 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively
(a) =60%; (b) =70%; (c) =80%; (d) =90%
Fig.8  hanges of open-circuit voltage with time in LMMGS B when the volume percentages of injected liquid metal () are 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively
(a) =60%; (b) =70%; (c) =80%; (d) =90%
Fig.9  Changes of output power of LMMGS B with a load of 0.01 ? when the volume percentages of injected liquid metal () are 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% respectively
(a) =60%; (b) =70%; (c) =80%; (d) =90%
LMPDimension (Inner diameter×Outer diameter×Length)/mm3
LMP I12×14×110
LMP II12×14×125
Tab.5  Dimensions of LMPs in LMMGS C
Fig.10  Changes of open-circuit voltage and output power with time when the volume percentage of injected liquid metal is 90% in LMMGS C
(a) Changes of open-circuit voltage with time; (b) Changes of output power with time when two 0.01 ? loads are connected to two MHGs in LMMGS C respectively
1 Starner T. Human-powered wearable computing. IBM Systems Journal , 1996, 35(3,4): 618-629
doi: 10.1147/sj.353.0618
2 Kymissis J, Kendall C, Paradiso J, Gershenfeld N. Parasitic power harvesting in shoes. In: The Second International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Pittsburgh, USA , 1998, 132-139
3 Donelan J M, Kram R, Kuo A D. Simultaneous positive and negative external mechanical work in human walking. Journal of Biomechanics , 2002, 35(1): 117-124
doi: 10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00169-5 pmid:11747890
4 Donelan J M, Kram R, Kuo A D. Mechanical work for step-to-step transitions is a major determinant of the metabolic cost of human walking. Journal of Experimental Biology , 2002, 205(Pt 23): 3717-3727
pmid:12409498
5 Kuo A D, Donelan J M, Ruina A. Energetic consequences of walking like an inverted pendulum: step-to-step transitions. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews , 2005, 33(2): 88-97
doi: 10.1097/00003677-200504000-00006 pmid:15821430
6 Donelan J M, Li Q, Naing V, Hoffer J A, Weber D J, Kuo A D. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort. Science , 2008, 319(5864): 807-810
doi: 10.1126/science.1149860 pmid:18258914
7 Rome L C, Flynn L, Goldman E M, Yoo T D. Generating electricity while walking with loads. Science , 2005, 309(5741): 1725-1728
doi: 10.1126/science.1111063 pmid:16151012
8 Saha C R, O’Donnell T, Wang N, McCloskey P. Electromagnetic generator for harvesting energy from human motion. Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical , 2008, 147(1): 248-253
doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2008.03.008
9 Ma K Q, Liu J. Heat-driven liquid metal cooling device for the thermal management of a computer chip. Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics , 2007, 40(15): 4722-4729
doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/40/15/055
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Xi ZHAO, Shuo XU, Jing LIU. Surface tension of liquid metal: role, mechanism and application[J]. Front. Energy, 2017, 11(4): 535-567.
[2] Yujie DING,Jing LIU. Water film coated composite liquid metal marble and its fluidic impact dynamics phenomenon[J]. Front. Energy, 2016, 10(1): 29-36.
[3] Yunxia GAO, Lei WANG, Haiyan LI, Jing LIU. Liquid metal as energy transportation medium or coolant under harsh environment with temperature below zero centigrade[J]. Front Energ, 2014, 8(1): 49-61.
[4] Manli LUO, Jing LIU. Experimental investigation of liquid metal alloy based mini-channel heat exchanger for high power electronic devices[J]. Front Energ, 2013, 7(4): 479-486.
[5] Lei WANG, Jing LIU. Liquid metal material genome: Initiation of a new research track towards discovery of advanced energy materials[J]. Front Energ, 2013, 7(3): 317-332.
[6] Qin ZHANG, Yi ZHENG, Jing LIU. Direct writing of electronics based on alloy and metal (DREAM) ink: A newly emerging area and its impact on energy, environment and health sciences[J]. Front Energ, 2012, 6(4): 311-340.
[7] Dan DAI, Jing LIU. Tackling global electricity shortage through human power: Technical opportunities from direct or indirect utilizations of the pervasive and green human energy[J]. Front Energ, 2012, 6(3): 210-226.
[8] Haiyan LI, Jing LIU. Revolutionizing heat transport enhancement with liquid metals: Proposal of a new industry of water-free heat exchangers[J]. Front Energ, 2011, 5(1): 20-42.
[9] MA Kunquan, LIU Jing. Liquid metal cooling in thermal management of computer chips[J]. Front. Energy, 2007, 1(4): 384-402.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed