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Frontiers of Earth Science

Front. Earth Sci.    2017, Vol. 11 Issue (4) : 601-608     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11707-016-0608-x
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons
Lei HUANG1,2, Hui ZHAO1(), Jiayi PAN2,3,4, Adam DEVLIN5
1. College of Ocean and Meteorology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
2. Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3. Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518057, China
4. College of Marine Science, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
5. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207, USA
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Abstract

Phytoplankton blooms in the Western North Pacific, triggered by two successive typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds under different pre-existing oceanic conditions, were observed and analyzed using remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data, as well as typhoon parameters and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiles. Typhoon Sinlaku, with relatively weaker intensity and slower translation speed, induced a stronger phytoplankton bloom than Jangmi with stronger intensity and faster translation speed (Chl-a>0.18 mg·m3 versus Chl-a<0.15 mg·m3) east of Taiwan Island. Translation speed may be one of the important mechanisms that affect phytoplankton blooms in the study area. Pre-existing cyclonic circulations provided a relatively unstable thermodynamic structure for Sinlaku, and therefore cold water with rich nutrients could be brought up easily. The mixed-layer deepening caused by Typhoon Sinlaku, which occurred first, could have triggered an unfavorable condition for the phytoplankton bloom induced by Typhoon Jangmi which followed afterwards. The sea surface temperature cooling by Jangmi was suppressed due to the presence of the thick upper-ocean mixed-layer, which prevented the deeper cold water from being entrained into the upper-ocean mixed layer, leading to a weaker phytoplankton augment. The present study suggests that both wind (including typhoon translation speed and intensity) and pre-existing conditions (e.g., mixed-layer depths, eddies, and nutrients) play important roles in the strong phytoplankton bloom, and are responsible for the stronger phytoplankton bloom after Sinlaku’s passage than that after Jangmi’s passage. A new typhoon-influencing parameter is introduced that combines the effects of the typhoon forcing (including the typhoon intensity and translation speed) and the oceanic pre-condition. This parameter shows that the forcing effect of Sinlaku was stronger than that of Jangmi.

Keywords typhoon      mixed-layer depth      phytoplankton bloom      Northwest Pacific Ocean      upwelling     
Corresponding Authors: Hui ZHAO   
Just Accepted Date: 19 October 2016   Online First Date: 14 November 2016    Issue Date: 10 November 2017
 Cite this article:   
Lei HUANG,Hui ZHAO,Jiayi PAN, et al. Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons[J]. Front. Earth Sci., 2017, 11(4): 601-608.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/10.1007/s11707-016-0608-x
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fesci/EN/Y2017/V11/I4/601
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Lei HUANG
Hui ZHAO
Jiayi PAN
Adam DEVLIN
Fig.1  Track and intensity of typhoons (a) Sinlaku (07–16 September 2008) and (b) Jangmi (23 September–01 October 2008) in the western North Pacific (WNP).
Fig.2  (a) Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration (mg·m?3) before Typhoon Sinlaku; Chl-a concentration (mg·m?3 ) after Typhoon (b) Sinlaku and (c) Jangmi; (d) time series of daily Chl-a concentration averaged over an offshore region (122.5°–125°E, 21°–24°N) shown as the box in (b) and (c).
Fig.3  (a) SST before Typhoon Sinlaku; SST after Typhoon (b) Sinlaku and (c) Jangmi; (d) time series of SST averaged over the offshore region (122.5°–125°E, 21°–24°N) shown as the box in Fig. 2(b) and 2(c).
Fig.4  SSHA (cm) from September to early October, 2008.
Fig.5  Time series of Ekman pumping velocity (10?4 m·s?1) during (a) Sinlaku and (b) Jangmi averaged over the offshore area (122.5°–125°E, 21°–24°N ) for both Sinlaku and Jangmi.
Fig.6  (a) Vertical profiles of the climatological temperature (°C) in September, CTD temperature profiles on the (b) west side and (c) east side of the typhoon tracks.
No. Time Location T/°C Δ T/°C MLD/m ΔMLD/m
1 1-Sep 20.91°N, 123.58°E 29.2 ----- 30 -----
2 11-Sep 20.93°N, 124.00°E 28.2 ?1 42 12
3 21-Sep 20.27°N, 123.91°E 28.5 ----- 60 -----
4 1-Oct 20.23°N, 123.43°E 28.1 ?0.4 70 10
5 1-Sep 22.30°N, 126.44°E 29.5 ----- 30 -----
6 11-Sep 23.31°N, 126.58°E 28.7 ?0.8 60 30
7 16-Sep 24.42°N, 126.31°E 28.2 ?1.3 70 40
8 21-Sep 24.33°N, 126.89°E 28.3 ----- 35 -----
9 1-Oct 24.35°N, 127.41°E 28.6 0.3 55 20
Tab.1  The CTD time and locations, sea surface cooling at the locations, and mixed-layer deepening estimated based on the CTD temperature profiles
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