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Frontiers of Engineering Management

Front. Eng
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Identifying subassemblies and understanding their functions during a design review in immersive and non-immersive virtual environments
Fanika LUKAČEVIĆ1, Stanko ŠKEC2(), Peter TÖRLIND3, Mario ŠTORGA4
1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia; DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
3. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
4. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia; Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
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Abstract

Design review (DR) is a product development (PD) activity used to inspect the technical characteristics of a design solution. Immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology enables the presentation of spatial information and interaction with 3D CAD models inside an immersive virtual environment (IVE). Such capabilities have shown the potential to mitigate the cognitive load needed for the visual perception of spatial information and, consequently, enhance design understanding and DR performance. Thus, an increasing number of studies have explored the effect of IVR technology on DR activities in different domains. However, determining when the implementation of IVR technology rather than a conventional user interface for DRs in mechanical engineering PD projects will be beneficial remains unclear. Hence, a conceptual DR experimental study was conducted to investigate the differences in the ability of engineering students to identify mechanisms and understand their functions when a design solution for a technical system is presented in an IVE by IVR technology and in a non-immersive virtual environment (nIVE) by a conventional user interface (monitor display, keyboard, and mouse). Data were collected by performing DR tasks and having participants complete a prior experience questionnaire, presence questionnaire, and mental rotations test. Findings of the study indicate that IVR does not support an enhanced ability of engineering students to identify mechanisms and understand their functions compared with a conventional user interface.

Keywords design review      virtual environment      virtual reality      mechanism      function     
Corresponding Authors: Stanko ŠKEC   
Just Accepted Date: 05 March 2020   Online First Date: 02 April 2020   
 Cite this article:   
Fanika LUKAČEVIĆ,Stanko ŠKEC,Peter TÖRLIND, et al. Identifying subassemblies and understanding their functions during a design review in immersive and non-immersive virtual environments[J]. Front. Eng, 02 April 2020. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1007/s42524-020-0099-z.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/10.1007/s42524-020-0099-z
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/Y/V/I/0
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Articles by authors
Fanika LUKAČEVIĆ
Stanko ŠKEC
Peter TÖRLIND
Mario ŠTORGA
Article Design domain Applicationa Participantsb Design solutionc
Satter and Butler (2015) engineering ED, SP EE, RS machine unit (IV)
Wolfartsberger (2019) engineering ED EE power unit (III)
Rigutti et al. (2018) architectural ED RS corridor (IV)
de Casenave and Lugo (2017) engineering ED RS cube assembly
Paes et al. (2017) architectural SP EE entrance hall (IV)
Berg and Vance (2017) engineering UIE EE vehicle (III)
Freeman et al. (2016) engineering DC S gearbox (II)
Maftei and Harty (2016) construction DC EE hospital room (IV)
Liu et al. (2014) construction DC EE energy retrofit (IV)
Satter and Butler (2012) engineering ED, SP S, EE ship (III)
Vora et al. (2001) engineering ED S aircraft (IV)
Dunston et al. (2010) architectural L O hospital room (IV)
Bassanino et al. (2010) construction L O bathroom (IV)
Mengoni et al. (2009) industrial DC EE shower (III)
Germani et al. (2009) engineering DC EE shower, washing machine (III)
Schnabel and Kvan (2003) architectural SP S cube assembly
Whyte et al. (2002) construction UIE EE building (IV)
Banerjee et al. (2002) engineering DC EE vehicle (III)
Tab.1  Overview of the literature that has researched how IVR technology supports DR activities
Fig.1  Driving mode model.
Fig.2  Folded mode model.
Fig.3  Experimental layout.
Fig.4  IVE with associated tools.
Fig.5  Experimental procedure.
DR experience (time) 0 1–3 4–6 7–9 ≥10
Number of participants 21 7 5 2 5
IVR experience (min) 0 <5 5–15 15–60 150–210 780
Number of participants 23 3 6 4 3 1
Tab.2  Prior experience
Fig.6  Participant identifying the mechanism for adjusting the steering bar height in the IVE.
Fig.7  Participant identifying the mechanism for adjusting the steering bar height in the nIVE.
Fig.8  Correctly identified adjustment mechanisms.
Fig.9  Linear regression of presence–adjustment mechanisms.
Fig.10  Linear regression of presence–confidence.
Educational background ME ID SEE PD
Ncam 3.0±0.5 3.4±0.7 2.0±0.0 3.6±0.8
Year of study 1 2 3 4 5
Ncam 2.0±0.0 2.8±0.4 3.5±0.7 3.4±0.8 3.3±0.8
Number of DRs 0 1–3 4–6 7–9 ≥10
Ncam 3.1±0.6 2.9±0.5 4.2±0.7 1.7±0.5 3.0±1.0
CAD skills None Limited Basic Intermediate Advanced
Ncam 2.0±0.5 3.0±0.8 3.2±0.5 3.5±0.8 3.8±0.8
Seat adjustments 0 1–5 6–10 11–30 ≥30
Ncam - 2.8±0.4 3.4±0.5 3.1±0.9 3.5±0.8
Steering bar adjustments 0 1–5 6–10 11–30 ≥30
Ncam 3.1±0.3 3.4±0.9 2.7±1.0 2.9±1.4 3.4±0.7
Tab.3  Relationship between the number of correctly identified adjustment mechanisms and prior experience aspects
Fig.11  Participant identifying a folding step in the IVE.
Fig.12  Participant identifying a folding step in the nIVE.
Fig.13  Correctly identified folding steps.
Fig.14  Linear regression of presence–folding steps.
Fig.15  Linear regression of presence–confidence.
Educational background ME ID SEE PD
Ncfs 4.0±1.3 4.3±1.0 3.5±0.5 4.1±1.1
Year of study 1 2 3 4 5
Ncfs 4.0±0.0 3.0±0.7 4.3±1.0 4.1±1.3 4.7±0.5
Number of DRs 0 1–3 4–6 7–9 ≥10
Ncfs 3.7±1.3 4.6±0.5 4.6±0.5 4.5±0.5 4.6±0.8
CAD skills None Limited Basic Intermediate Advanced
Ncfs 2.3±1.4 4.0±0.8 3.9±1.1 4.4±1.0 4.8±0.4
Number of vehicles folded 0 1–5 6–10 11–30 ≥30
Ncfs 3.3±2.4 3.7±1.3 4.2±1.1 4.4±0.5 3.6±1.3
Tab.4  Relationship between the number of correctly identified folding steps and prior experience aspects
Fig.16  Functional errors (left—Error 1, middle—Error 2, right—Error 3).
Fig.17  Participant detecting an error in the IVE.
Fig.18  Participant detecting an error in the nIVE.
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