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Frontiers of Engineering Management

Front. Eng    2020, Vol. 7 Issue (2) : 182-195     https://doi.org/10.1007/s42524-019-0034-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Corporate governance impact on banking risk
Mahdi JEMMALI1(), Bassem SALHI2
1. Department of Computer Science and Information, College of Science at Zulfi, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia; Department of Computer Science, Higher Institute of Computer Science and Mathematics of Monastir, Monastir University, Monastir 5000, Tunisia
2. Department of Accounting, College of Business Administration, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah 11952, Saudi Arabia
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Abstract

This study aims to determine the relationship between several factors of governance and the level of risk in 10 Tunisian banks during an analysis period of eight years. We propose an important empirical question and examine the internal mechanisms of governance aimed at reducing financial risks. This estimation is based on a model with a single equation that examines variables relative to governance and credit risk to determine their impact on banking financials. Results demonstrate that the internal mechanisms of governance present diverging effects on the financial risk of the Tunisian banks in our case study (i.e., credit risk). Moreover, making applications work by putting together a process and model for banking risk is important. This model can be applied in any bank, and the results can be used to make decisions in real time.

Keywords bank governance      banking risk      process decision      modeling      architecture     
Corresponding Author(s): Mahdi JEMMALI   
Just Accepted Date: 24 April 2019   Online First Date: 18 June 2019    Issue Date: 27 May 2020
 Cite this article:   
Mahdi JEMMALI,Bassem SALHI. Corporate governance impact on banking risk[J]. Front. Eng, 2020, 7(2): 182-195.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/10.1007/s42524-019-0034-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fem/EN/Y2020/V7/I2/182
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Fig.1  Variation of C between 2002 and 2012.
Fig.2  Evaluation function for variable C.
Fig.3  Trusting interval.
Variables Y1 Y2 Y3
α 69.94585
(1.083473)
−2.556103
(−4.265473)
9.423792)
(2.280047)
C −0.234045
(−2.220154)
0.000590
(0.331404)
0.012095
(0.984907)
P I −0.153396
(−0.760449)
0.001646
(0.879028)
3.047509
(2.039424)
P E −0.199973
(−2.197709)
0.000965
(0.622772)
−0.003969
(−0.371303)
P −0.111681
(−0.769758)
0.001107
(3.821606)
−0.004986
(−0.536751)
T −1.023996
(−1.054921)
0.020733
(2.300960)
0.034649
(0.557538)
A −51.03836
(−3.828917)
−0.094628
(−0.764773)
0.344336
(0.403481)
A I 12.72056
(0.503413)
0.343575
(2.464778)
−0.840338
(−0.519439)
D 1.376378
(0.244547)
0.172884
(3.309116)
−0.036064
(−0.100082)
R 2 0.460311 0.626092 0.330560
Observations 80 80 80
Tab.1  Regression results (NB: robust statistics; Student (t) are shown in brackets)
Risk description B R
Good bank trusting [0–15]
Bank that we can trust [16–25]
Bank that has a little bit of risk [26–35]
Bank that is uncertain to fail [36–45]
Bank with risk to fail [45–60]
Bank that can fail [61–70]
Bank with failure assumption [71–80]
Failed bank [81–100]
Tab.2  Banking risk range
Bank Year C PI PE P T A AI D
BT 2006 18.11 45.26 0 45.26 17 0.41 0.18 1
Tab.3  Values of independent variables for TB in 2006
Fig.4  Process decision.
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
BT 2002 2.70 3.13 3.03 0.00 5.29 4.07 2.75 10.00 −32.36 54.34 10.02 −28.04 37.58 18.33 9.29
2003 0.85 5.23 3.68 0.03 10.00 3.58 3.00 0.00 −36.61 34.88 15.47 −31.72 24.12 28.28 6.89
2004 3.17 5.07 1.44 6.74 8.82 5.80 1.75 10.00 −47.32 85.30 14.57 −41.00 58.99 26.63 14.87
2005 4.93 4.94 0.03 7.21 5.88 6.17 5.00 10.00 −45.10 87.64 13.18 −39.08 60.61 24.09 15.20
2006 2.73 4.54 0.00 6.64 10.00 5.06 4.50 10.00 −39.75 93.43 12.62 −34.45 64.61 23.06 17.74
2007 2.91 4.43 3.54 1.62 5.29 2.72 2.75 10.00 −30.96 63.06 11.27 −26.83 43.61 20.61 12.46
2008 2.97 4.43 2.98 0.00 4.12 1.73 7.00 10.00 −21.52 65.07 9.18 −18.65 45.00 16.78 14.38
2009 2.97 4.43 2.98 0.00 4.12 1.73 7.00 10.00 −21.52 65.07 9.18 −18.65 45.00 16.78 14.38
2010 3.02 4.57 2.80 0.00 3.53 2.10 7.00 10.00 −22.13 63.46 9.41 −19.17 43.89 17.20 13.97
2011 3.02 4.54 2.97 0.00 3.53 2.10 7.00 10.00 −22.48 63.54 9.29 −19.48 43.94 16.99 13.82
2012 3.02 4.88 3.01 0.00 4.71 1.54 7.00 10.00 −21.95 66.99 10.39 −19.02 46.33 19.00 15.44
Tab.4  “BT” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
BIAT 2002 3.78 8.06 6.80 2.89 5.88 8.64 10.00 10.00 −63.38 88.06 16.60 −54.93 60.90 30.36 12.11
2003 7.55 5.02 6.63 0.00 5.88 1.23 5.00 10.00 −41.09 68.86 15.31 −35.61 47.62 28.00 13.34
2004 4.01 5.55 0.03 0.00 7.06 4.07 6.25 10.00 −30.62 67.68 16.51 −26.53 46.81 30.18 16.82
2005 2.03 4.00 2.03 3.20 7.06 7.16 2.00 10.00 −45.78 66.32 12.38 −39.67 45.87 22.64 9.61
2006 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.02 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.83 31.73 27.56 −65.71 21.94 50.38 2.20
2007 6.86 7.38 3.64 0.02 7.06 3.09 4.00 0.00 −46.04 34.76 23.42 −39.89 24.04 42.82 8.99
2008 7.13 7.44 3.10 0.02 7.06 3.09 4.00 0.00 −45.49 34.54 24.01 −39.42 23.89 43.89 9.45
2009 8.78 7.56 2.24 0.01 7.06 3.09 4.00 0.00 −47.34 34.64 26.20 −41.02 23.96 47.89 10.28
2010 8.61 7.48 1.03 0.01 4.71 1.60 7.50 0.00 −34.38 38.08 22.64 −29.79 26.34 41.39 12.65
2011 8.78 7.27 1.01 0.01 5.29 2.72 5.00 0.00 −40.67 32.30 24.42 −35.24 22.34 44.65 10.58
2010 10.00 7.43 1.03 0.01 5.29 2.72 5.00 0.00 −43.54 32.86 25.95 −37.73 22.72 47.44 10.81
Tab.5  “BIAT” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
STB 2002 3.01 3.13 3.22 0.00 5.29 4.07 2.75 10.00 -33.45 54.56 10.25 -28.98 37.73 18.74 9.16
2003 0.85 5.23 3.20 0.03 10.00 3.58 3.00 0.00 −35.56 34.59 15.65 −30.81 23.92 28.60 7.24
2004 3.17 5.07 1.44 6.74 9.41 5.43 1.50 10.00 −46.64 86.32 14.87 −40.42 59.69 27.18 15.49
2005 4.93 4.94 0.40 7.21 5.88 6.17 5.00 10.00 −45.91 87.87 13.04 −39.78 60.77 23.84 14.94
2006 2.73 4.54 0.00 6.64 10.00 5.06 4.50 10.00 −39.76 93.43 12.61 −34.46 64.61 23.06 17.74
2007 7.93 7.28 1.09 7.70 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −68.64 96.61 21.46 −59.48 66.81 39.24 15.52
2008 7.93 7.35 1.08 7.70 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −68.65 96.66 21.62 −59.49 66.85 39.52 15.63
2009 7.93 7.12 1.18 7.70 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −68.71 96.52 21.10 −59.54 66.75 38.58 15.26
2010 7.96 7.15 1.30 7.73 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −69.07 96.74 21.13 −59.85 66.90 38.63 15.23
2011 7.96 7.26 1.24 7.73 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −69.03 96.80 21.38 −59.82 66.94 39.08 15.40
2012 7.96 7.29 1.27 7.73 7.06 9.26 6.25 10.00 −69.11 96.84 21.43 −59.89 66.97 39.18 15.42
Tab.6  “STB” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
BH 2002 7.85 8.06 6.80 0.00 6.47 2.22 9.25 0.00 −49.11 49.77 21.27 −42.56 34.42 38.88 10.25
2003 7.55 5.02 6.63 0.00 5.88 1.23 5.00 10.00 −41.09 68.86 15.31 −35.61 47.62 28.00 13.34
2004 4.01 5.55 0.03 0.00 7.06 4.07 6.25 10.00 −30.62 67.68 16.51 −26.53 46.81 30.18 16.82
2005 2.03 4.00 2.23 3.20 7.06 7.16 2.00 10.00 −46.21 66.44 12.31 −40.04 45.95 22.51 9.47
2006 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.81 31.65 27.57 −65.69 21.89 50.40 2.20
2007 8.78 10.00 2.30 8.52 6.47 7.78 9.00 10.00 −68.19 109.68 24.61 −59.09 75.85 45.00 20.59
2008 8.78 10.00 2.30 8.52 6.47 7.78 9.00 10.00 −68.19 109.68 24.61 −59.09 75.85 45.00 20.59
2009 8.78 10.00 2.30 8.52 6.47 7.78 9.00 10.00 −68.19 109.68 24.61 −59.09 75.85 45.00 20.59
2010 8.64 7.53 1.34 8.39 8.24 8.64 7.00 10.00 −69.98 104.88 22.24 −60.65 72.53 40.65 17.51
2011 8.48 7.65 1.05 8.23 6.47 7.78 9.00 10.00 −62.79 105.65 20.17 −54.41 73.07 36.87 18.51
2012 8.61 7.73 1.27 8.36 6.47 7.78 9.00 10.00 −63.72 106.40 20.32 −55.22 73.58 37.14 18.50
Tab.7  “BH” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
BNA 2002 3.01 3.34 3.40 0.00 5.29 2.72 2.75 10.00 −28.82 55.88 10.05 −24.98 38.65 18.38 10.68
2003 1.36 5.23 3.57 0.03 10.00 3.58 3.00 0.00 −37.51 34.99 16.01 −32.51 24.20 29.27 6.99
2004 3.78 5.07 1.43 6.89 7.06 7.16 2.00 10.00 −51.97 81.58 14.53 −45.03 56.42 26.56 12.65
2005 4.93 4.94 0.84 7.21 5.88 6.17 2.50 10.00 −48.13 81.99 14.15 −41.70 56.70 25.86 13.62
2006 2.73 4.54 0.01 6.64 7.06 7.16 4.25 10.00 −44.84 84.46 11.96 −38.86 58.41 21.87 13.81
2007 2.73 4.54 0.01 6.64 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −48.85 50.26 12.76 −42.34 34.76 23.32 5.25
2008 2.73 6.92 0.02 9.79 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −53.07 64.37 15.90 −45.99 44.51 29.06 9.20
2009 3.55 7.08 0.02 9.70 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −54.93 64.45 17.08 −47.60 44.57 31.23 9.40
2010 4.02 6.48 0.02 10.00 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −55.74 65.21 16.15 −48.30 45.10 29.52 8.77
2011 4.02 6.49 0.02 9.84 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −55.63 64.61 16.25 −48.20 44.68 29.71 8.73
2012 4.02 6.55 0.02 9.81 6.47 7.78 4.50 0.00 −55.65 64.55 16.39 −48.23 44.64 29.97 8.79
Tab.8  “BNA” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
UIB 2002 7.85 8.06 6.80 0.00 7.06 2.10 8.25 0.00 −49.74 48.75 22.05 −43.11 33.71 40.32 10.31
2003 7.55 5.02 6.63 0.00 5.88 1.23 5.00 10.00 −41.09 68.86 15.31 −35.61 47.62 28.00 13.34
2004 4.00 5.56 0.03 0.00 7.06 4.07 6.25 10.00 −30.62 67.69 16.53 −26.53 46.81 30.21 16.83
2005 2.03 4.00 2.23 3.20 7.06 7.16 2.00 10.00 −46.21 66.44 12.31 −40.04 45.95 22.51 9.47
2006 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.81 31.65 27.57 −65.69 21.89 50.40 2.20
2007 9.70 8.04 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.00 31.86 28.07 −65.85 22.03 51.31 2.50
2008 9.70 8.41 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.27 32.18 28.81 −66.10 22.25 52.67 2.94
2009 9.70 8.80 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.57 32.52 29.61 −66.35 22.49 54.13 3.42
2010 9.70 8.84 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.60 32.55 29.68 −66.38 22.51 54.25 3.46
2011 9.70 8.84 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.60 32.56 29.69 −66.38 22.51 54.28 3.47
2012 9.70 8.83 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.60 32.55 29.67 −66.37 22.51 54.24 3.46
Tab.9  “UIB” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
UBCI 2002 3.02 3.34 3.46 0.00 5.29 2.72 2.75 10.00 −28.97 55.92 10.05 −25.11 38.67 18.37 10.64
2003 2.85 6.81 4.31 0.00 7.06 4.07 4.25 0.00 −41.79 33.13 18.37 −36.21 22.91 33.58 6.76
2004 3.75 5.07 1.30 7.70 7.06 8.27 2.00 10.00 −56.47 83.72 14.56 −48.93 57.90 26.63 11.86
2005 4.93 4.94 1.24 7.21 6.47 6.67 2.25 10.00 −51.62 82.60 14.65 −44.73 57.12 26.78 13.06
2006 2.73 4.54 0.02 6.22 7.06 7.16 4.25 10.00 −44.53 82.86 12.18 −38.59 57.31 22.27 13.66
2007 7.55 8.52 6.52 0.00 4.12 5.93 6.00 10.00 −59.09 66.68 22.86 −51.20 46.11 41.80 12.24
2008 7.55 8.89 6.52 0.00 4.12 3.46 3.50 10.00 −51.18 62.72 23.90 −44.35 43.38 43.69 14.24
2009 7.55 9.26 6.52 0.00 4.12 3.46 3.50 10.00 −51.46 63.04 24.64 −44.59 43.60 45.04 14.68
2010 1.56 8.95 6.52 0.00 8.24 4.07 5.00 0.00 −46.25 40.49 20.90 −40.08 28.00 38.21 8.71
2011 1.56 8.92 6.52 0.00 8.24 4.07 5.00 0.00 −46.23 40.47 20.84 −40.06 27.99 38.09 8.67
2012 1.56 9.04 6.52 0.00 8.24 4.07 5.00 0.00 −46.32 40.57 21.07 −40.14 28.05 38.51 8.81
Tab.10  “UBCI” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
AB 2002 7.90 8.11 6.83 0.00 6.47 2.22 9.00 0.00 −49.45 49.23 21.53 −42.85 34.05 39.36 10.19
2003 7.55 5.40 6.55 0.00 5.88 1.23 5.00 10.00 −41.20 69.14 16.12 −35.70 47.82 29.48 13.86
2004 4.20 5.70 0.04 0.00 7.06 4.07 6.25 10.00 −31.18 67.88 16.99 −27.02 46.94 31.06 16.99
2005 8.09 7.49 6.99 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −68.95 29.99 25.88 −59.75 20.74 47.31 2.77
2006 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.81 31.65 27.57 −65.69 21.89 50.40 2.20
2007 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.81 31.65 27.57 −65.69 21.89 50.40 2.20
2008 9.70 8.08 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.02 31.89 28.13 −65.88 22.05 51.43 2.54
2009 9.70 8.26 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.16 32.04 28.50 −65.99 22.16 52.10 2.75
2010 9.70 8.24 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.14 32.03 28.46 −65.98 22.15 52.03 2.73
2011 9.70 8.06 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −76.01 31.87 28.10 −65.87 22.04 51.38 2.52
2012 9.70 8.03 8.38 0.00 7.06 6.17 2.00 0.00 −75.99 31.85 28.05 −65.85 22.03 51.27 2.48
Tab.11  “AB” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
Attijari 2002 3.02 3.34 3.46 0.00 4.71 3.09 3.25 10.00 −29.52 55.52 9.62 −25.58 38.39 17.58 10.13
2003 2.85 6.81 4.04 0.00 7.06 6.17 4.25 10.00 −46.83 64.37 18.31 −40.58 44.52 33.47 12.47
2004 3.75 5.07 1.05 7.70 7.06 8.27 2.00 10.00 −55.92 83.57 14.66 −48.46 57.79 26.79 12.04
2005 4.93 4.94 1.69 7.21 6.47 6.67 2.25 10.00 −52.61 82.88 14.48 −45.59 57.32 26.48 12.74
2006 2.73 4.54 0.02 6.22 7.06 8.27 4.25 10.00 −48.77 82.02 12.63 −42.26 56.72 23.08 12.51
2007 8.24 7.80 9.88 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −88.73 33.37 25.64 −76.89 23.08 46.87 -2.31
2008 8.24 7.76 9.79 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −88.50 33.28 25.60 −76.69 23.01 46.80 -2.29
2009 8.24 8.06 10.00 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −89.19 33.67 26.13 −77.28 23.28 47.77 -2.08
2010 6.19 8.24 7.69 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −79.73 31.72 25.35 −69.09 21.94 46.34 -0.27
2011 6.35 8.16 7.74 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −80.12 31.73 25.31 −69.43 21.95 46.28 -0.40
2012 6.39 8.37 7.70 0.00 6.47 10.00 4.25 0.00 −80.28 31.90 25.80 −69.56 22.06 47.16 -0.11
Tab.12  “Attijari” banking risk result
Bank Year E(C) E(PI) E(PE) E(P) E(T) E(A) E(AI) E(D) Y1 Y2 Y3 BR1 BR2 BR3 BR
ATB 2002 7.90 8.11 6.83 0.00 6.47 2.22 9.00 0.00 −49.45 49.23 21.53 −42.85 34.05 39.36 10.19
2003 7.55 5.40 6.55 0.00 5.88 1.23 5.00 10.00 −41.20 69.14 16.12 −35.70 47.82 29.48 13.86
2004 4.20 5.70 0.17 0.00 7.06 4.07 6.25 10.00 −31.46 67.96 16.94 −27.27 47.00 30.97 16.90
2005 8.09 6.11 6.99 0.00 6.47 4.44 2.25 0.00 −60.55 29.36 21.93 −52.47 20.30 40.09 2.64
2006 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 6.67 2.00 0.00 −78.31 32.62 28.09 −67.86 22.56 51.35 2.02
2007 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 7.90 5.75 0.00 −81.15 40.91 26.67 −70.32 28.29 48.76 2.24
2008 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 6.67 2.00 0.00 −78.31 32.62 28.09 −67.86 22.56 51.35 2.02
2009 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 7.90 5.75 0.00 −81.15 40.91 26.67 −70.32 28.29 48.76 2.24
2010 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 7.90 5.75 0.00 −81.15 40.91 26.67 −70.32 28.29 48.76 2.24
2011 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 6.67 2.00 0.00 −78.31 32.62 28.09 −67.86 22.56 51.35 2.02
2012 9.70 7.80 8.38 0.00 7.65 7.90 5.75 0.00 −81.15 40.91 26.67 −70.32 28.29 48.76 2.24
Tab.13  “ATB” banking risk result
Fig.5  Best and worst years for BR values.
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