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Frontiers of Economics in China

Front. Econ. China    2018, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 322-368     https://doi.org/10.3868/s060-007-018-0018-9
Orginal Article |
Urbanization in China, ca. 1100–1900
Yi Xu1(), Bas van Leeuwen2(), Jan Luiten van Zanden3()
1. College of Historical Culture and Tourism, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541001, China
2. International Institute of Social History, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, 1019AT, Netherlands
3. Department of Economic and Social History, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3512BS, Netherlands
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Abstract

This paper presents new estimates of the development of the urban population and the urbanization ratio for the period spanning the Song and late Qing dynasties. Urbanization is viewed, as in much of the economic historical literature on the topic, as an indirect indicator of economic development and structural change. The development of the urban system can therefore tell us a lot about long-term trends in the Chinese economy between 1100 and 1900. During the Song, the level of urbanization was high, also by international standards—the capital cities of the Song were probably the largest cities in the world. This remained so until the late Ming, but during the Qing there was a downward trend in the level of urbanization from 11%–12% to 7% in the late 18th century, a level at which it remained until the early 1900s. In our paper we analyse the role that socio–political and economic causes played in this decline, such as the changing character of the Chinese state, the limited impact of overseas trade on the urban system, and the apparent absence of the dynamic economic effects that were characteristic for the European urban system.

Keywords China      urbanization      Song dynasty      Ming dynasty      Qing dynasty      cities      commercialization     
Issue Date: 30 September 2018
 Cite this article:   
Yi Xu,Bas van Leeuwen,Jan Luiten van Zanden. Urbanization in China, ca. 1100–1900[J]. Front. Econ. China, 2018, 13(3): 322-368.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fec/EN/10.3868/s060-007-018-0018-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fec/EN/Y2018/V13/I3/322
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Yi Xu
Bas van Leeuwen
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