The low-carbon transformation of power sector is significant for achieving the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality in China. Based on the evaluation of power carbon budget, three power transformation scenarios of deep low-carbon, zero carbon, and negative carbon were built, the key boundary conditions such as power consumption demand were studied, and a path planning optimization model was established in the paper. Using the GESP-V software package for optimized analysis, the low-carbon transformation paths were determined for power structure, power carbon emissions, and power supply costs under different scenarios. The major issues that are critical for the low-carbon transformation of the power system were discussed, including coal power development, renewable energy development and utilization, diversified supply of clean energy, and electric power balance. Several suggestions were further proposed. Specifically, the top-level design should be strengthened to steadily plan the transformation pace, major low-carbon technologies should be developed to coordinate the overall technology and industrial layout, and the market mechanism with balanced interests should be improved while establishing a green finance policy system. The high-quality low-carbon transformation of China’s power sector in the medium and long term can be promoted through the coordination of policies, technologies, and mechanisms.
Smart agriculture is an important component of high-quality agricultural development and the overall rural revitalization in China. Research on smart agriculture strategy is significant for developing a medium- and long-term scientific and technological layout and clarifying the development ideas and direction of smart agriculture in China. Against the background of rural revitalization, this study summarizes the macro demand of high-quality agricultural development for smart agricultural science and technologies; it also analyzes the strategic conception, strategic tasks, and development route of China’s smart agriculture development toward 2035. Conclusions show that developing smart agriculture helps address the low quality and efficiency and weak competitiveness of China’s agriculture sector. Furthermore, to achieve the replacements of human power with machines and human brains with computers, and promote the independent technological competitiveness of China’s agricultural sector, an industrial technology system for the smart agriculture that integrates biotechnology, information technology, and intelligent equipment should be established; and smart agriculture should be promoted in a staged manner considering different business entities and industrial needs. Specifically, China should strengthen the top-level design, promote technological research, establish a differentiated subsidy echanism, integrate industry and village, and encourage applied talent training.
The standards system for supporting high-quality development is based on the development concept of “innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing” and supports the all-round, high-quality development of China’s economy, society, and ecology. Conducting strategic research on this standards system plays a basic and leading role in promoting economic development, ecological environment quality, and social governance level, and is significant for meeting people’s needs for a better life. In this article, we analyze the concept of high-quality development as well as the connotation and characteristics of the standards system for supporting high-quality development, and study the difference between the high-quality development standards system and existing systems. Moreover, this study presents the main directions and implementation paths for the standards system by 2025 and 2035, focusing on agriculture, manufacturing, services, social governance, ecological civilization, and other key areas. Furthermore, we propose corresponding countermeasures in aspects of top level design, standardization policies, standardization capability improvement, and standardization personnel training, hoping to provide references for the development of the aforementioned key areas and for the decision making of relevant government departments.
Cyberspace strategic early-warning is a monitoring and warning system that is established by a country or group for early detection, tracking, identification, and notification of incoming major cyber attacks or the spreading destruction of powerful viruses. It’s an important component of a national security defense system. The implementation of the national cyber development strategy in China requires high attentions to the construction of a cyberspace strategic early-warning system. This study analyzes the major characteristics and basic requirements of strategic early-warning in cyberspace, and studies four major warning styles: security vulnerabilities, security threats, intrusion attacks, and abnormal behaviors warning. It also emphasizes four key projects, namely cyberspace surveying and mapping system, vulnerability collection and early-warning platform, threat intelligence perception and push system, as well as security monitoring and comprehensive early-warning system, after summarizing the construction of strategic earlywarning and monitoring systems in cyberspace in China and abroad. To promote the strategic early-warning system in cyberspace, we propose several countermeasures and suggestions, including strengthening high-level coordination, focusing on multi-source data integration, establishing professional early-warning agencies, conducting regular security assessments, and implementing threat and early-warning grading mechanisms.
The coordinated development of energy, economic society, and ecological environment has always been one of the major issues facing China. Although achievements have been made in some regions in China regarding the coordinated development, varied contradictions and problems still exist. Therefore, China should consider these significant differences in regional development while promoting energy revolution. This study elaborates the significance of regional energy revolution and analyzes the current status of economic society, energy, and ecological environment in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, old industrial bases, the central region, energy-rich areas, and the Southwest in China. To promote the regional energy revolution, China should strengthen the top-level design for energy revolution and clarify the strategic objectives and key tasks for medium- and long-term development. A mode of well-planned and coordinated development should be established by clarifying the functions of regional energy revolution. The pilots of regional energy revolution should be promoted, thus to explore an efficient mechanism for the energy revolution. Moreover, the responsibilities of the regional governments should be clarified and an assessment and supervision mechanism should be established, so as to ensure that the regional energy revolution achieves expected effects.
There are abundant mineral resources at the seafloor. These resources have rich varieties, vast reserves, high grade, and great development and utilization prospects. Countries in the world are accelerating the development of deep-sea mining equipment nowadays. This study analyzes the development status of the deep-sea mining equipment in China and abroad and investigates the deficiencies in technologies and equipment in China from the perspectives of fundamental scientific research, key technology development, and sea trial verification. Moreover, it summarizes the key scientific and technological issues to be resolved, and proposes the developing trends of deep-sea heavy operation equipment, ore transport equipment, and sea surface support vessels. We propose that deep-sea mining should adhere to the concepts of heavy equipment, collaboration, intelligence, and green development, and key technology innovation and independent research and development of the mining equipment should be promoted. Demonstration projects should be constructed for deep-sea polymetallic nodule mining to accelerate the development of deep-sea mining technologies and equipment, so as to realize large-scale sea trials, conduct system design for long-term operation, and promote commercial seabed mining.
The material industry provides a material basis for national economic development, social progress, and national defense security. Materials are particularly important for China as it now enters the middle and late stage of industrialization. Conducting strategic research on new materials will help strengthen China’s manufacturing sector. In this article, we systematically analyze the development status, trend, and problems regarding the new material industry in China and abroad and summarize the domestic and foreign policies for the industry. After analyzing the future strategic demands for the new materials, we propose the overall idea, characteristics, and goals of the new material power strategy. The key direction of the strategy need to focus on fields such as advanced basic materials, key strategic materials, and frontier materials. An evaluation–characterization–standards platform should be established for new materials. Furthermore, we propose some policy suggestions to facilitate the development of China’s new material industry and provide a reference for the decision making by relevant government departments. Specifically, an independent innovation system for new materials should be constructed; platforms for digital R & D, production application demonstration, and resource sharing should also be established; the quality and technology infrastructure should be improved; and talent teams dedicated for the development of the new material industry should be created.
The Internet Plus initiative has been integrated into many sectors of the economy and society, which profoundly changes the development model, technology, and forms of various fields and constantly enhances the country’s innovation and competitiveness. The new-generation artificial intelligence technology, new information and communication technologies, and new Internet technologies have been integrated with technologies in various fields, driving the digital transformation and upgrades of these fields and ushering in an Intelligence Plus era which is led by intelligence, driven by data, and featured by ubiquitous interconnection, sharing services, cross-field integration, and mass innovation. Against the backdrop of Intelligence Plus, this study summarizes the development status and problems regarding the Internet Plus initiative in China, expounds its new connotations, and demonstrates the architecture and technology system pedigree framework of the Internet Plus system. Moreover, it analyzes the strategic goals and technological routes of the Internet Plus initiative in the Intelligent Plus era in China and proposes specific project suggestions: strengthening fundamental research in order to make breakthroughs in core technologies and focusing on the in-depth integration of the Internet Plus initiative with different fields such as smart manufacturing, modern agriculture, smart energy, people-benefiting services, smart transportation, and smart environmental protection. We also propose that a systematic policy mechanism should be established to support the Internet Plus initiative, laws and regulations as well as standards systems should be improved, and a cross-border integrated talent training system should be created, hoping to provide theoretical references for the development of the Internet Plus initiative in the Intelligence Plus era in China.
To promote the development of laser technology and its application, the Chinese Academy of Engineering launched a major consulting project “Strategic Research on China’s Laser Technology and Its Application by 2035” in 2018. This paper is a comprehensive research report on the project. It briefly analyzes laser technology and its instrumental, leading, and disruptive role in scientific research and industrial application, and summarizes the present situation of research and application of laser technology in frontier laser, manufacturing, information and communication, medical treatment, and other fields in China. Several problems that restrict the rapid development of lasers are presented, and the development goals of China’s laser technology and its application by 2035 are conceived. To achieve these goals, China should strengthen the overall planning at the top level to lead the rapid development of laser technology and its application and strengthen basic research to make breakthroughs in major basic problems, common technology foundation, and basic materials and devices. It also should establish research and development special projects concerning laser application to create multiple new laser industry chains, and innovate its industry coordination mechanism to improve the innovation ecology of laser industry. Moreover, China should strengthen the basic education concerning the laser technology and promote talent cultivation of the laser and optical disciplines.
Strategic emerging industries are an important force guiding future economic and social development. Accelerating the development of strategic emerging industries is an important measure to promote the upgrading of industrial structure and speed up the transformation of economic development mode in China. It is of great strategic significance to the China’s modernization. This paper focuses on the 14th Five-Year Plan and the development of strategic emerging industries by 2035. It also systematically analyzes the international environment, trend, present situation, experiences, and problems of the strategic emerging industries. The general development ideas and key directions of emerging industries in the future are put forward, and relevant measures and suggestions are also proposed with a view to provide a theoretical reference for the high-quality development of strategic emerging industries in China, including promoting overall coordination and optimizing top-level design, to strengthen strategic guidance; strengthening the foundation for innovation and improving the innovation system for the strategic emerging industries; stimulating market vitality and giving full play to the dominant position and leading role of enterprises in innovation; promoting openness and integration and insisting on the combination of “going global” and “bring in”.