First-mover advantage and solid foundation of oil and gas cooperation is very important to the Belt and Road Initiative. Deeply studied opportunities and challenges of oil and gas cooperation have far-reaching significance to the cooperation in other industries in the Belt and Road. In this article, based on the systematic analysis of the oil and gas supply security, investment environment, regional win-win situation in oil and gas cooperation, new opportunities and challenges about upstream, pipeline, refining, trade, warehousing, engineering technology and equipment are studied. Enhancing capacities in four areas and implementing the 16 measures are given for deepening oil and gas cooperation in the future. Meanwhile, this article also gives suggestions and cooperation directions for countries and companies.
Deepwater offshore area, with rich oil and gas resources, has currently become the hot area for oil and gas exploration and the main battlefield where global oil majors compete with each other. This article summarizes the current situation of deepwater oil and gas exploration and development overseas from the perspectives of exploration history, exploration achievements and technical progress, and analyzes the difficulties and challenges faced by the industry, such as low level understanding of hydrocarbon accumulation conditions, global security and environmental challenges. And then, several feasible implementation strategies have been proposed on how to actively deal with the challenges, promote Chinese oil companies’ overseas exploration, and realize efficient exploration and development of deepwater oil and gas fields overseas. These strategies consist of three aspects: profit-oriented operation principle, exploration ideas supported by theory and technology, and exploration strategy that puts safety first. In the era of low oil prices, Chinese oil companies must build up confidence, seize the opportunity and face the challenge while taking efforts to innovate technologies and theories, updates strategic ideas, and cultivate deepwater talents so as to be in an active position in global deepwater exploration and development industry in the future.
Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) constitutes catalytic technology that converts synthesis gas to synthetic liquid fuels and chemicals. While synthesis gas can be obtained from any carbonaceous feedstock, current industrial FTS operations are almost exclusively based on natural gas. Due to the energy structure of China where cheap coal is abundant, coal to liquids (CTL) technology involving coal gasification, FTS and syncrude upgrading is increasingly being considered as a viable option to convert coal to clean transportation fuels. In this brief paper, we review some pertinent issues about Fe- and Co-based FTS catalysts. Fe is better suited to convert synthesis gas derived from coal gasification into fuels. The authors limit themselves to noting some important trends in the research on Fe-based catalysts. They focus on the preparation of phase-pure carbides and innovative cheap synthesis methods for obtaining active and stable catalysts. These approaches should be augmented by (1) computational investigations that are increasingly able to predict not only mechanism, reaction rates and selectivity but also optimum catalyst composition, as well as (2) characterization of the catalytic materials under conditions close to the operation in real reactors.
New overseas venture evaluation is key for oversea exploration of Chinese oil companies, whose credibility directly determine the degree of success of exploration for overseas blocks. The uniqueness of new overseas venture evaluation in short assessing cycle and limited data make project management vital. Project management includes human resource allocation, quality control and effective communication. In China National Offshore Oilfield Corporation (CNOOC), the new overseas venture evaluation system has been established. This system includes quality control system and assurance for new overseas venture evaluation, geological evaluation norms for overseas oil & gas exploration, regulations for new overseas venture evaluation and seismic interpretation methodology and procedure for new overseas venture evaluation. Directed by the new overseas venture evaluation system, three-level quality control and management of data-room visit are strictly reinforced, which guarantees the efficiency and quality of new overseas venture evaluation. As a result the new overseas venture evaluation boosts the development of young explorationists and leads to breakthroughs in exploring potential target areas of CNOOC and in the discovery of giant oil and gas fields, which underpins the development of overseas business in CNOOC.
Oversea hydrocarbon exploration always faces some problems, such as multiple basin types, different exploration prospects, various exploration degrees, diverse data quantities and geological recognitions. This paper focuses on overseas basins with different exploration degrees and offers a new evaluation system and research method for fast evaluation and risk analysis on hydrocarbon potential. Based on the theory of probability, this new evaluation system evaluates each parameter and core accumulation factor with comprehensive and quantitative assignment, to accelerate geological evaluation. In addition, this paper suggests that source rock evaluation should be the core criterion in screening evaluation of poor-explored basins, and also proposes that both the exploration potential and geological recognition should drive the evaluation for basins with high exploration degrees. This new system and method, which is an effective system for fast basin evaluation, is suggested to be used in oversea evaluation and decision-making objectively, scientifically and efficiently.
This paper discusses the two major root causes of smog in China. The first one is the distributed coal combustion in many small and medium sized boilers which have no emission control systems installed. To resolve this problem, there are several ways, such as increasing the centralized coal combustion for heat and power cogeneration; or converting coal to SNG in areas where there is enough water resource and removing the pollutants of the coal in the centralized coal to SNG plant, or refining the coal and making it cleaner first before combustion. The second major cause of smog is the low quality diesel and outdated diesel engines used in China. To solve this problem, there are some ways, such as improving the diesel quality to meet the national V standard, and meanwhile, enhancing the law enforcement to eliminate these outdated diesel engines that do not meet the national emission standards; in addition, combusting cleaner and cheaper fuel such as methanol or DME in the diesel engines is also an option for certain areas where there are abundant alternative fuels such as methanol to replace diesel.
The oil and gas exploration in offshore China has made great achievements, and as the important areas of offshore exploration, the shallow waters contribute most of the oil and gas reserves and production. However, the available area for exploration is diminishing and the cost of exploration is rising. The field changes and ever increasing difficulties of exploration bring new challenges technically and economically. Therefore, for effective exploration of shallow-water oil and gas in offshore China, it is necessary to center on the general requirements of becoming a powerful marine country and the ideas of value exploration, initiate key research projects in the fields of China’s offshore stratigraphic-lithologic reserves, Paleogene reserves, buried-hill reserves, high temperature and pressure reserves and hydrocarbon-rich sags, and form geological theories and explorative technologies of large and medium size oil and gas field in offshore China. The measures regarding the challenges include: (1) Innovating theoretical understanding and optimizing new exploration fields, (2) developing technical capabilities and improving the success rate of exploration, and (3) enhancing management level and deepening value exploration.
Deepwater oilfields will become main sources of the world’s oil and gas production. It is characterized with high technology, huge investment, long duration, high risk and high profit. It is a huge system project, including exploration and appraising, field development plan (FDP) design, implementation, reservoir management and optimization. Actually, limited data, international environment and oil price will cause much uncertainty for FDP design and production management. Any unreasonable decision will cause huge loss. Thus, risk foreseeing and mitigation strategies become more important. This paper takes AKPO and EGINA as examples to analyze the main uncertainties, proposes mitigation strategies, and provides valuable experiences for the other deepwater oilfields development.
China is currently the world’s top coal consumer and the largest oil importer to sustain its rising economy and meet the mounting demand for transportation fuels. However, the increasing emissions due to the huge fossil fuels consumption, coupled with oil market instability, could derail China’s economic growth and jeopardize its national energy security. To face such a hurdle, China has been aggressively supporting low-carbon businesses opportunuties over the past decade, has recently announced several plans to cap coal utilization, and is currently the biggest investor in clean energy technologies. Coal-to-Liquid (CTL) is one of the most promising clean coal technologies, offering an ideal solution that can meet China’s energy demands and environmental expectations. It is widely known that the Shenhua Group has pioneered and is currently leading the commercialization of the Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) process in China.
This paper highlights a part of the joint research effort undertaken by the National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy (NICE) and University of Pittsburgh in order to develop and commercialize the Indirect Coal Liquefaction (ICL) process. In this mission, NICE has built and operated an ICL plant including a large-scale (5.8-m ID and 30-m height) Slurry-Bubble-Column Reactor (SBCR) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using iron catalyst. The research, conducted at the University of Pittsburgh over the past few years, allowed building a user-friendly Simulator, based on a comprehensive SBCR model integrated with Aspen Plus and is validated using data from the NICE actual ICL plant. In this paper, the Simulator predictions of the performance of the NICE SBCR, operating with iron and cobalt catalysts under four different tail gas recycle strategies: (1) direct recycle; (2) using a Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) unit; (3) using a reformer; and (4) using a Chemical looping Combustion (CLC) process, are presented. It should be mentioned also that our joint research effort has laid the foundation for the design of a commercial-scale SBCR for producing one-million tons per annum of environmentally friendly and ultraclean (no sulfur, no nitrogen and virtually no aromatics) transportation fuels, which could greatly contribute to ensuring China’s national energy security while curbing its lingering emission problems.
Restructuring of China’s energy mix is accelerating due to factors such as energy security, economic cost, climate change and environmental pressure. Efficient and clean utilization of coal-generated power therefore plays an increasingly important role in solving energy and environmental problems in China. Coal-fired power plants, with Shenhua Guohua Sanhe as one of the pioneers, followed trend of this era and adopted multiple ultra-low emission and energy efficient technologies, striving to be an industry leader in environmental protection, profitability and innovation. As a result, coal-fired power plants have seen ultra-low emissions of air pollutants and record-high energy efficiency, opening up a new era of more efficient and cleaner coal generation. By the end of 2015, Shenhua Group had had 45 ultra-low emission coal units, providing strong support for implementing of the national policy on ultra-low emission and energy efficient retrofit of coal-fired power plants across China.
With the development of information technology in the past 12 years, China has established the specialized or vertical web-based information systems for data collection of disease and related risk factor. These information systems are described as public health information systems (PHIS) in China. When PHIS has thus evolved in a haphazard and fragmented way under the pressure administrative, economic and legal, local health workers who are overburdened with multiple and time-consuming reporting requirements cannot deliver timely, accurate and complete data. Seeing that the information of disease surveillance is provided by hospitals and health service centers in China and that the development of electronic medical record (EMR) and electronic health record (EHR) occurs under the policy and investment of health since 2009 in China, there should be a connection and data sharing mechanism between EMR (EHR) and PHIS to support public health surveillance and public health decision-making. The paper aims at discussing current status and problems of PHIS in China, making a brief introduction on the blueprint of health information technology in China, exploring solution for interoperability between PHIS and EHR (EMR), and sharing some experiences and lessons from pilot project on automatic notifiable infectious disease reporting.
Deepwater area has been one of the hottest areas in the global hydrocarbon exploration. However, deepwater hydrocarbon exploration in China started late and mainly concentrated in the South China Sea (SCS) with low level of researches. Although there are some achievements, there are even more challenges. For this reason, this paper reviewed the history of deepwater exploration in China Seas and summarized the current exploration situation. The future directions of deepwater hydrocarbon exploration mainly consist of five aspects: establishing key technology system of complex structure and reservoir seismic acquisition and processing in deepwater areas of SCS, clarifying the development mechanism of high quality source rock and establishing matching assessment technology, studying the formation conditions of favorable reservoir and creating reservoir identification technology, improving accumulation theory of large and medium-sized oil and gas field of deepwater, deepening the researches of petroleum geology conditions of middle and south part of SCS. Simultaneously, the concept of portfolio should be utilized in the exploration process, with economic benefits considered. These understandings will help guiding the future deepwater hydrocarbon exploration in China Seas.
Inter-basin Water Transfer Projects require the appropriate financing model to attract large amounts of social investment. Therefore, financing model decision becomes the key of engineering construction. In three aspects, such as the subject, the object and the target of the financing model, Grey Target Model is established in this paper. First, the complex financing mode decision problems of Inter-basin Water Transfer Projects are decomposed by using hierarchical decomposition method. Then Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to calculate the comprehensive weight of evaluation index. Experts’ opinions financing model are transformed into the evaluation matrix based on the Dephi method. The Weighted Grey Target Model is used to calculate the approaching degree of financing model and assists financing mode decision. In addition, this paper takes the water diversion project from the Han to the Wei River of Shaanxi Province as a verification example for the model. For other water diversion projects, the evaluation results are also reliable and provide theoretical references for the financing model decision of Inter-basin Water Transfer Projects.
The paper empirically studies the engineering practices of the national currency circulation information system-China Union Pay’s Bankcard Information Exchange System. By integrating the meta-synthesis methodology and the financial information system engineering, the paper proposes basic principles and processes of the giant and complex financial information system engineering management, and further explores its paradigm and toolkit.