Landscape Architecture Frontiers

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DESIGNING A RESILIENT WATERSCAPE USING A LIVING LAB AND CATALYZING POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE
ZINGRAFF-HAMED Aude, MARTIN Juliette, LUPP Gerd, LINNEROOTH-BAYER Joanne, PAULEIT Stephan
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 12-31.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020003
Abstract   PDF (3476KB)

The both polycentric governance and Living Labs concepts are based on decentralized participatory planning, co-design, and decisionmaking. While the concept of Living Lab is still emerging, the Isar-Plan (2000 ~ 2011) pioneered the approach for selecting, co-designing, and implementing nature-based solutions along the Isar River in Munich, Germany. Despite multiple governing authorities involved in the decisionmaking process of the Isar-Plan, the polycentric governance that led to the success of the project has to date not been analyzed. This paper presents the results of an ex-post-analysis of the Isar-Plan restoration planning process based on stakeholder interviews and a literature review. The contribution describes the evolution of Isar-Plan governance arrangements and discusses the Living Lab approaches to cooperative governance. The analysis demonstrates how polycentricity facilitated trust, learning, and the co-design of a resilient waterscape. The paper concludes that Living Labs can be a way of applying polycentric governance when autonomous and multi-scale decision-makers are collaboratively involved in the design of policy solutions, and vice-versa.

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WONDERLAND IS A SLOW PLACE
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010005
Abstract   PDF (6043KB)

The author first examines the origin and development of the international Citta Slow movement, and points out that the growing Citta Slow movement in China can be understood as a New Ruralism Movement for urban residents and the vision of Citta Slow in China is a romantic ideal of the Beautiful Countryside. The article then argues that slowing cities which operate at a moderate speed can create more pleasant and livable environments through the smart use of space, an energy-saving development, and harmony between man and nature. Finally, in the critical period of Beautiful China Construction and the new stage of China’s urbanization, five principles are proposed for designers and developers to apply into planning and design of slowing cities.

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The Effect of Landscape Patterns on Avian Communities during Summer Months in Beijing’s Urban Parks
Shilin XIE,Fei LU,Lei CAO,Weiqi ZHOU,Zhiyun OUYANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2016, 4 (3): 10-21.  
Abstract   PDF (2369KB)

Parks are among the most important green spaces in urban landscapes, making them hotspots for urban biodiversity research. The scale and spatial patterns of these urban landscapes suggest best practices for avian communities. This study considers the landscape patterns of Beijing’s urban parks and their relationship to avian species abundance and density. The study analyzed high-resolution satellite images, with an accuracy of one meter, from 29 urban parks during the summer months. The research showed the average size of Beijing’s urban parks to be small (with an average size of 13.9 hm2), with woodland landscapes as the most common landscape typology (with an average of 74.7%). In the analyzed parks, the patch density was high, with an average density of 8.63 per hectare, while the contagion index was low, with a 63 on average. Additionally, the number of avian species found in each sample park was low, with only 13.2 recorded on average. Spearman correlation analysis showed that avian species abundance were positively correlated with park areas, along with the landscape contagion and the proportion of woodland landscape, and negatively correlated with patch density, SHDI, and SHEI. Finally, the analysis showed a correlation between small patch size and low species diversity. The conclusions drawn can help provide guidance and reference for avian urban park planning and design.

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LOOKING BACK AND AHEAD AT CHINA’S URBANIZATION
Jinkui LI,Dihua LI
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2015, 3 (5): 26-31.  
Abstract   PDF (906KB)

This dialogue took place under the background of the ”new urbanization” referred by 18th CCP Report. Jinkui Li and Dihua Li first looked back the history of China’s urbanization, then discussed the typical urban morphologies and related contributing reasons, the different urbanization stages, the difference and shift between the western and eastern China, and finally, predicted and explored the issues and opportunities that would be brought by the “new urbanization” in China.

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THE WONDERLAND AT THE FOOT OF MOUNT QISHAN
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010004
Abstract   PDF (6931KB)

As the core territory for the Zhou and Qin dynasties, the land at the foot of Mount Qishan in Shaanxi Province has significantly made the society and culture of China thrive and grow. The author retraced four routes to find out how the Zhou and Qin people explored and envisioned this landscape, both physically as settlements and spiritually as a wonderland. These routes include the migration path of the Zhou people from the north to the south of Mount Qishan to seek shelter from nomadic tribes; the path of the Zhou people moving from the west to the east along the Weihe River to conquer the Shang people and establish a new kingdom; the path of the Qin State to unify the other six states and found a great dynasty; and the route climbing from the Weihe Valley to Mount Taibai, the main peak of the Qinling Mountains. All the episodes happened on these routes had a profound influence on the ideology of Chinese society and cultural identity. For instance, the Zhou people’s observation on the landscape for farming and living, as well as their preference for the basin-shaped territory, significantly contributed to forming the Chinese geomancy (Feng Shui) and developed into an ideal territorial image of being the “kingdom in the center” (literally meaning “China” in Chinese); the artistic representation of sublime reflected the Qin people’s fight for survival and honor; and the described Kunlun Wonderland perfectly expresses both religious ideals and worldly desires.

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DECISION-SUPPORTIVE FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN DESIGN BASED ON THE TARGET OF SLOWING DOWN URBAN RESOURCE FLOWS: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF URBAN METABOLISM
Luoyi YIN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020015
Abstract   PDF (14718KB)

The Urban Metabolism theory makes it possible to quantify design methods and strategies for sustainable urban design based on analysis of urban resource flows. Aiming at improving the urban environment, this paper takes four types of urban resources closely related to residents’ lives (i.e., water, energy, organic waste, and food) as evaluation objects and their flow rates as the evaluation indicators, and operates with design scenario models as the core to establish the decision-supportive framework for urban design, which consists of four basic parts: urban status analysis, design scenario setting, design alternatives, and design evaluation. This framework could quickly present design proposals and evaluate their expected performances, providing a basis for decision making in design practice. Then, China World Trade Center area in Beijing is taken as an example to interpret the practical value of the framework by providing guidelines for urban design practices of this area. Finally, the paper points out that instead of showing the optimal design strategy, the final output of the framework just provides decision makers an intuitive understanding of a specific design proposal and the impacts the design intervention would bring to the urban environment.

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AL-ULA OASIS AND THE LOST CIVILIZATION
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010003
Abstract   PDF (3765KB)

This article firstly explores how Al-Ula, an ancient city in northwestern Arabian Peninsula, thrived historically despite little rainfall, and reviews the historic civilizations ruled this oasis. Then, it points out that the misuse of limited water resource degraded the environmental capacity of the oasis, resulting in the imbalance between humans and the land and eventually the decline of civilizations. Finally, the article concludes that the oasis and the watershed it depends on is an integral system, whose lifeblood is maintained by water cycle restoration. It is also one of the key tasks of Landscape Architecture to explore ecological restoration and sustainable management of watershed in the sense of hydrology.

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The Role of Biophilic Design in Landscape Architecture for Health and Well-being
Joe CLANCY, Catie RYAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2015, 3 (1): 54-61.  
Abstract   PDF (10321KB)

As of 2007, over 50% of the global population is now urban. With more global urbanites, has come increased urbanisation and displacement of green space and natural environments from our urban centres. Biophilic design aims to restore natural stimuli in our built and designed environments to protect, maintain, restore and enhance our physiological, cognitive and psychological connections with the natural world. As part of a wider salutogenic approach to health, biophilic design has the potential to catalyze landscape architecture into playing a central role in public health of urban environments.

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Towards a Visual Voice for Smells
Kate MCLEAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2016, 4 (4): 131-141.  
Abstract   PDF (1059KB)

Smells are whimsical creatures. As errant hitchhikers of rides on air currents, they appear to defy being tied to a location, yet our nuanced perception of olfactory knowledge is often linked with place.

My work considers smells as entities and speculates on their patterns of movement and their interactions. Smell is under-represented in the Western world. In order to raise awareness about the value of understanding “smell,” my research seeks strategies by which we can share and explore the everyday odours within both local and exotic urban smellscapes.

This article traces the exploration of global cities through the noses of local inhabitants, and uses map-making as a means of communication; whilst also exploring my personal motivation for undertaking this research.

As a graphic designer, I utilise the design process as a methodology; each new piece of work is an iteration on a previous piece.

Smellscape maps use “ex-formation” as a communication design method to render the seemingly “known” as “unknown” so as to encourage discussion and dispute over the possibility of mapping smells and to encourage experiential learning in situ through personal experience. To sniff is to know.

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RESTORATIVE SPATIAL PLANNING PRACTICE IN RESPONSE TO ISOLATION, SEGREGATION, AND INEQUALITY
Leiqing XU, Yu YAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020016
Abstract   PDF (11604KB)

The article points out that the urban homogenization and social atomization status may lead to corresponding social problems including isolation, segregation, and inequality, and critically reviews their intrinsic consistency with urban development stages and the correlation between mental health and urban diseases. Based on the review of ideas such as Socially Restorative Urbanism and Socially Restorative Urban Design Model, the authors summarize a Socially Restorative Urban Design Model with five planning strategies — group size reduction, place-making, nature-based restoration, walkable system construction, and responsive city establishment — to realize human-human, human-space, human-nature, human-mobility, and humandata connections through taking planning as a tool of empowerment. In addition, the article reflects on the urban problems caused by the past urbanization process in China which pursued quick achievements and examines cases that could guide the new stage of Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration, giving the same weight to social restoration as physical space improvement and ecological restoration.

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OBSERVATION AND REPRESENTATION: ON RECOGNITION AND EXPRESSION OF NATURAL SITES IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Ying ZENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020012
Abstract   PDF (17512KB)

In the education of Landscape Architecture, the way we view and depict a natural site is defined by the way we observe and express it. This paper starts with a comparison between the perspective and approach of traditional painting types (the realistic sketch, design sketch, and landscape painting) and those in Landscape Architecture. All of them involve observation (viewing) and expression (drawing) of natural beings and phenomena, where traditional paintings are in the pursuit of honest depiction of the forms or shapes. While in Landscape Architecture it emphasizes understanding and representing the evolutions and the complicated intrinsic relations of the authentic sites — in other words, to represent the nature of reality.

To be on-site, the use of body movement, and the evolutions and correlations of natural beings are the three most important principles to the observation and representation in Landscape Architecture. Combining with two cases in teaching and practice, this paper elaborates how to develop abstract forms and design concepts from the observation of authentic sites and how the trans-scaled reflection on the correlations about the sites can inspire a site-scaled design, providing references for the education and practice of Landscape Architecture in China.

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THE REBIRTH OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST — ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION PLANNING FOR SANDA MOUNTAIN OF XISHUANGBANNA, CHINA
LAO Bingli, ZHUO Weide, ZHU Rongyuan
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2020, 8 (1): 108-125.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040012
Abstract   PDF (16716KB)

Tropical rainforest, a unique forest ecosystem with the richest biodiversity on the earth, is now suffering from rapid biodiversity loss and ecological degradation. Xishuangbanna is such a typical example in China, where the ecosystem of Sanda Mountain is fragmented by agricultural practices and rubber plantation, and the vegetation productivity decreases sharply, threatening its role in the regional ecological security pattern. For an overall ecological improvement of the study area, since 2017, the project team has examined the existing habitat conditions in Sanda Mountain and proposed a thirty-year planning scheme for the ecological restoration by introducing constructive and pioneer plant species, employing a mixedspecies planting mode, and facilitating the natural regeneration of vegetation community to recover natural succession through ecological restoration planning at patch-, corridor-, and regionalscales. The team simulated the changes in carbon storage, habitat quality, and ecosystem service value before and after planning via the InVEST model to guide the dynamic adjustment of the tropical rainforest restoration. This exploratory ecological restoration planning for such a largescale tropical rainforest may provide research and practical references for other studies in China and abroad.

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SETTLING ALONG, WITH, AND ON WATER IN THUA THIEN HUE, VIETNAM: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 10-27.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020006
Abstract   PDF (17102KB)

This paper develops a water-based spatial biography of the Thua Thien Hue Province in Vietnam’s Central Highlands and critically interprets the territory’s intertwined contemporary challenges — a growing population, greater demands on agriculture, fisheries, and aquaculture, tourism and changes in annual rainwater, and sea level regimes. It is structured by four sections (typical geography and exceptional ecology, diverse settlement typologies, curse and perils of water, contemporary challenges) which interpretatively read the context. Historical analysis and mapping of present-day projects in the pipeline are complemented by extensive fieldwork in an attempt to reveal (and later build upon) the logics of the territory. It concludes with a series of projective design strategies developed by Research Urbanism and Architecture for the Thua Thien Hue Province Peoples’ Committee and the Hanoi-based investor Van Phu, which attempt to balance ecology with economy with a focus on lagoon restoration and new city and settlement types (for the living and the dead) which respond to the predicted consequences of climate change (particularly severe flooding). The project is premised on policy shifts from hardengineering to approaches that work as much as possible with natural means to simultaneously restore ecologies and generates opportunities to embed new sustainable economies. Not surprisingly, water urbanism strategies are key to this envisioned future development of the province.

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In-Between Waters /Intercepting Wetness: Inventing Rain in the Mining Landscape of Shanxi Province, China
Jieru (Hedy) HE
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 139-149.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050005
Abstract   PDF (11166KB)

Under the background of imposing engineered structures, including reservoirs and inter-basin water transfer infrastructures, being applied to solve drought caused by coal mining in Shanxi Province of China and floods caused by mineral mining in Western Ghats of India, the author reviews the intrinsic reason of water problems and recommends a water management solution that is design on “rain before floods” and “fields of wetness before flows of water.” Most magnificent engineered infrastructures are designed upon an idea of separating water from its milieu, thus becoming contained flows in pipes, channels, and reservoirs to solve water problems. To compensate for the shortage of existing water infrastructures, the author suggests gathering a regional-level landscape capacity for building “wetness” of resilience when facing problems of “water” in extremities. This is a radical shift compared with a problem-solving approach, as engineering does, to one that is grounded in landscape and uncovers opportunities.

The landscape research and design project introduced in this article aims to provide an alternative future for Shanxi Province, China, which seems arid and is challenged by monodevelopment mode. The research and design within the project are across four nested scales. A landscape infrastructure of intercepting wetness is taken as an underlying thread which initiates intertwined ecological, programmatic, temporal and material trajectories. On the other hand, the project demonstrates research, representation, design, and planning can actually inform one another, and the design remains open and adaptive to its changing environments.

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LESSONS FROM THE SOCIAL FORM AND LANDSCAPE RESILIENCE OF THE PEACH BLOSSOM LAND
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 4-7.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010001
Abstract   PDF (5074KB)

This article firstly examines the relationship between social form and landscape resilience and argues that a polycentric governance model is conducive to enhancing landscape resilience. By analyzing the social governance model and the landscape pattern of the Peach Blossom Land, it reveals how this fictional world was ideally shaped by an autonomous grassroots society and sustainable productive landscape. The ancient Huizhou Region perfectly illustrates how a local social governance based on family disciplines, clan rules, folk beliefs, and ethics, supplemented by the imperial power, has maintained the resilience and sustainability of its beautiful and productive ecological landscape in a long term, making itself a Peach Blossom Land in the hilly area of Southeast China and free from natural disasters and wars. Finally, the author proposes that although the Industrial Civilization has undermined the resilience of China’s landscape, Peach Blossom Lands are now reemerging under the Beautiful China Construction and Ecological Civilization programs.

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Defining Local Identity
Yuhan SHAO, Eckart LANGE, Kevin THWAITES, Binyi LIU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2017, 5 (2): 24-41.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20170203
Abstract   PDF (1321KB)

This study aims at providing a formal definition on local identity to clarify the confusion in the field of landscape study. The study first introduces different levels of identities in landscape research. Then the second part reviews relevant definitions to identify their relations and common factors to clear confusions on local identity. The third extracts, formalizes and reorganizes the common factors into a new framework to represent elements that contribute to local identity and form a formal definition of local identity. The paper also concludes their important meanings to both landscape research and practice.

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THE SPARK OF CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPE CREATIVITY — THE FOUNDATION LANDSCAPE DESIGN STUDIO IN THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
Vincci MAK
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020010
Abstract   PDF (20036KB)

Traditional landscape design studio training starts with the learning of a classic or prominent landscape project, may it be through site observation or a trace-over / imitation exercise. Foundation year students in a landscape program typically take the landscape precedent project as a study ground, to learn about the landscape master’s design through the mimicking process in the trace-over exercise, or to learn about the articulation of spatial design through site observation.

Landscape Architecture, afterall, is a creative endeavor. Thus, an alternative approach is to start the fundamental training with the study of artistic processes, to foster appreciation in art and design, innovative concept development, and articulation in craftsmanship. Also, the contemporary discourse of Landscape Architecture is no longer simply about spatial design, but has transformed to require understanding of process, operation, step-by-step mechanism, movement, and how a system works. The performative and dynamic aspects of landscape are being valued nowadays.

Such ways of seeing landscapes require a different set of observation and representation methods and skills. In this article, the author shares how the pedagogical content and developments of the foundation year landscape design studio in the HKU Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Studies BA(LS) Program help train students with such new interpretations to contemporary Landscape Architecture.

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POLYCENTRIC GOVERNANCE AND RESILIENCE ENHANCEMENT FOR MOUNTAIN LANDSCAPES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS: THE CASE OF THE SANTA MONICA MOUNTAINS, THE USA
Zheng LI, Xin PEI
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 62-77.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020002
Abstract   PDF (5635KB)

Globally, accelerated urbanization has wrapped more and more mountain landscapes into metropolitan areas as water sources or residential and recreational spaces. Such mountain landscapes are usually governed by multiple agencies, which means that its sustainable development largely depends on the effectiveness of the collective actions among these agencies. This paper examines the case of the Santa Monica Mountains in California, the United States by analyzing relevant oral histories, acts and ordinances, study reports, planning documents, and GIS data to depict the whole picture of the evolution of its cooperative planning and management. It is found that the polycentric governance in the Santa Monica Mountains emerged as a response to the deterioration of natural resource and the increasing outdoor recreation needs against the backdrop of urbanization. The California State government developed coastal zone protection guidelines and established conservancies, while the federal government cooperated with local governments and communities by forming a national recreation area. These methods helped the governing agencies tactically cope with the real estate development, changing political climate, shrinking financial allocation, rising land prices, and conceptual shifts in environmental protection. This polycentric governance mode was also applied to other mountain areas in the vicinity to form a regionalscale resilient landscape. The authors argue that the case of the Santa Monica Mountains reveals how the polycentric governance works on strengthening landscape resilience, which shows an important reference for contemporary China.

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WORK WITH AND BY NATURE: THE ESSENCE OF TERRITORIAL SPATIAL PLANNING AND ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2020, 8 (1): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010006
Abstract   PDF (3404KB)

Through his recent visits to three cities facing severe and challenging living environment, the author had a deeper insight into the symbiosis between human and nature. In Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, urban construction practices against floods and for water supply encroach on natural ecological infrastructure, resulting in the exhaustion of local water resource, city sinking, and erased indigenous cultural landscape of floating gardens. In Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, where water bodies are heavily polluted, scarce urban parks become the only refuge for citizens. Finally in Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, estuary gates built to block floods invade the once prosperous canals, accelerating the decline of floating communities and markets and exacerbating traffic congestion and air pollution. Learning from these cases, cities must become better at territorial spatial planning and have the foresight to develop and grow while preserving and improving existing ecosystems. Essentially, territorial spatial planning and ecological restoration is to work with and by nature that would provide generous ecosystem services for humans, and, eventually, to increase people’s well-being and enhance cities’ development of sustainability.

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REINVENTING THE PUBLIC PARK — THE BLOCK IN DUBAI
Duncan DENLEY
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 134-145.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040010
Abstract   PDF (21824KB)

Recently completed, The Block was constructed over a seven-month period along the Dubai Water Canal in Dubai Design District, providing a much-celebrated public park for the people of Dubai. Through their re-purposing of seven hundred 30-ton concrete blocks left over from the canal construction, landscape architects, desert INK created countless play features for children, outdoor exercise areas, and food and beverage outlets. Breaking all public park stereotypes and incorporating an unconventional approach to design, The Block stands out as one of the most unique and innovative landscape designs in the Middle East, if not the world. With a clear brief to attract a diverse range of new visitors to d3, desert INK set out to create an extraordinary park which would attract children and families to this otherwise design-industry focused district so that different lifestyles could co-exist and the community could thrive.

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A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON URBAN WATERLOGGING BASED ON CITESPACE MAPPING KNOWLEDGE DOMAINS
Lingyu RAN, Yan ZHOU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 66-87.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-0-020002
Abstract   PDF (4029KB)

Cities have suffered from long-time waterlogging problems. A review of English and Chinese literature on “urban waterlogging” can help analyze the research progress and further explore methods and approaches to alleviate such problems in Chinese cities. By examining the literature from the Web of Science Core Collection database and CNKI database with CiteSpace, a Mapping Knowledge Domains tool, this paper aims to scientifically review the disciplinary structure, major research interests, and research hotspots of the issues of urban waterlogging. Through data analyses, it concludes that: 1) urban waterlogging is a hot topic that has been studied in a great number of subjects, with interdisciplinary studies and a continuous growth in Urban and Rural Planning, Geography, Landscape Architecture, etc. in recent years; 2) the research on waterlogging in representative subjects varies; 3) English and Chinese literature explores stormwater management and control measures from the perspectives of planning concepts, infrastructure, drainage systems, spatial regulation, management methods, and micromeasures; 4) research hotspots cover the concepts and measures of waterlogging control, hydrological processes and patterns, causes of waterlogging, and risk assessment and management; 5) the existing research mainly focuses on micro scales, and there is an absence of studies on ideal spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales, or on the correlation between urban hydrological processes and waterlogging formation mechanisms with spatial deployment of stormwater regulation approaches. Finally, according to existing research limitations, the paper proposes that: 1) future theoretical studies should explore the backgrounds, objectives, and application scenarios of various waterlogging control approaches; 2) studies are expected to explore spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales; and 3) scholars should expand the territory of research by integrating with Hydrology.

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OPERATIONALIZING POLYCENTRICITY FOR LANDSCAPE RESILIENCE
Wei LIU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (3): 8-11.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010002
Abstract   PDF (1349KB)

Landscapes are complex adaptive socialecological systems that encompass human and natural and built environments, and provide essential public and common goods to societies. Facing fast socio-economic, environmental, and policy changes and increasing uncertainties, building resilience has emerged as a main objective for landscape planning, design, and management. A key strategy to make landscape social-ecological systems resilient is to form appropriate governance forms that can be responsive and adaptive to external shocks and other stressors. Polycentricity is such a form that has been proven to enhance resilience. By analyzing a variety of cases, it demonstrates polycentricity — both its breadth of inclusion and collaborative degree — can affect governance outcomes. This is the best of times to become more plural in theory and methodology in order to have a stronger capacity of navigating the complexities of landscape social-ecological systems.

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Sponge City and LID Technology — Vision and Tradition
Wolfgang F. GEIGER
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2015, 3 (2): 10-20.  
Abstract   PDF (14986KB)

The meanings of Sponge City and LID Technology are explained followed by an analysis of the Sponge City and LID ideas in Chinese and world history. Recent developments of planning and design techniques for LID are summarized. Effects and limits of Sponge City and LID are explained on behalf of Chinese and international examples. Further some advice for best planning and design strategies including principles for merging technical and landscape / urban planning issues are given. Finally, experiences with practical designs and different projects are reviewed, highlighting what is needed to improve practice of Sponge City and LID theories.

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Resilience through Regeneration: The economics of repurposing vacant land with green infrastructure
Galen NEWMAN, Dongying LI, Rui ZHU, Dingding REN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (6): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180602
Abstract   PDF (14171KB)

Many urban areas affected by flood disasters are also becoming increasingly ecologically and socially fragmented due to the accumulation of vacant properties. While redevelopment is often viewed as the primary objective in regenerating vacant properties, they can also potentially provide ecological and hydrological land uses. Rather than chasing developmentbased incentives for regenerating vacant lots in high flood-risk communities, a balance should be sought between new developmental land uses and green infrastructure to help counteract stormwater runoff and flood effects, or “Resilience through Regeneration.” This paper uses landscape performance measures to evaluate the economic and hydrologic performance of green infrastructure regeneration projects for three marginalized neighborhoods in Houston, Texas, USA. Each project site is characterized by excessive vacant lots and flood issues. Results suggest that, when using green infrastructure to regenerate vacant properties, 1) flood risk continually decreases, 2) upfront economic costs increase in the short term (when compared to conventional development), and 3) the long-term economic return on investment is much higher.

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Cited: Crossref(3)
FROM TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE TO GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE — ADAPTABLE FUTURE ROADS IN AUTONOMOUS URBANISM
LUO Yadan
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (2): 92-99.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20190209
Abstract   PDF (13086KB)

Modern road systems consist of a large amount of driving fault-tolerant space for security reasons, leaving much of the area vacant and underutilized in off-peak hours. The emerging autonomous vehicle technology may address this problem while reshaping the urban structure and space through transportation technology innovations. Once the algorithm-controlled vehicles can realize an accurate running, 80 percent of the existing roads can be transformed into vegetated permeable surfaces. As a result, the whole road system will be converted into a pervasive green infrastructure network, which provides an opportunity to enhance the continuity of urban ecosystem. Moreover, the cloud computing technology may help distribute more lanes to vehicles during peak hours and shrink vehicles’ right of way during off-peak hours. The saved road space could support activities such as outdoor restaurants and concerts. Finally, the author encourages more landscape architects to contribute to a better future of autonomous urbanism with their visions of eco-environment, public space, and humanity.

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“MORE BUZZWORDS THAN ANSWERS” — TO SIDEWALK LABS IN TORONTO
Mariana VALVERDE, Alexandra FLNN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2018, 6 (2): 115-123.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20180212
Abstract   PDF (15477KB)

Many articles have appeared in mainstream media and in techoriented venues about Sidewalk Labs’ ideas for a new hightech neighbourhood in Toronto (a project named Sidewalk Toronto). By and large, international commentary has focused on the opportunities and risks of giving over control over many city planning decisions to a private data-oriented corporation, with people lining up for or against “smart city” ideas, in general.

This article will set aside generalities about “smart cities” and technology, and instead pose a few questions about the particulars of Sidewalk Toronto project. The first question concerns the striking lack of transparency of the agreement between Sidewalk Labs (a Google sister company) and Waterfront Toronto, the public authority promoting the project, which is not directly accountable to the city or the citizens. The second question concerns the equally striking ambiguity about which parcel of land is being sought by Sidewalk Labs — an ambiguity that suggests a worrying lack of concern, on the tech company’s part, about both local planning law and local real estate realities. The third set of concerns is about the ownership of the data that appears to be Sidewalk Labs’ real interest. Fourthly, problems in the contract award and procurement mechanisms will be raised. Finally, even though the agreement has not yet been seen even by city council, the process so far and the statements by both parties raise serious concerns about accountability, the fifth point raised in this article.

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Cited: Crossref(1)
PLANNING OF SLOW-TRAVELING FACILITY SYSTEM FOR THE ANCIENT GREAT WALL CULTURAL HERITAGE CORRIDOR IN DATONG, SHANXI PROVINCE
Hongda WANG, Xiao FENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 116-133.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040009
Abstract   PDF (30291KB)

The Great Wall is a world cultural heritage and a treasure of human civilization. In 2017, the Government of Datong, Shanxi Province proposed to build a cultural heritage corridor of the ancient Great Wall. Based on deep investigation and meticulous analyses, the planning team envisioned a heritage corridor with a length of 258 km, covering a total area of 186 km2, in which the slow-traveling facility system, as an important component that integrates the construction, operation, and management of related heritage sites, provides sightseeing, recreational, and educational services. This article discusses the strategies to develop the slow-traveling facility system in the cultural heritage corridor, which adopts a low-interference structure according to the spatial distribution of heritage sites along the Great Wall, and applies the minimum cumulative resistance model and other scientific methods to analyze development suitability and ecological environment conditions of the project site. Based on the evaluation results, the slow-traveling facility system and the service node system are adaptively planned and designed, combined with a low-intervention interpretation system. Finally, the scales of facilities are designed based on an estimation of tourist amount to control the impact of construction on heritage sites and natural environment. As such, the balance between heritage conservation and tourism development is achieved.

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(NEW) URBAN SCIENCE: STUDYING “NEW” CITIES WITH NEW DATA, METHODS, AND TECHNOLOGIES
Ying LONG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (2): 8-21.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-20190202
Abstract   PDF (1613KB)

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is profoundly changing our cities with a series of disruptive technologies, characterized for the boom of Internet industries and the everyday application and wide integration of intelligent technologies. Individuals’ traditional mechanical thinking has changed into a mindset based on big data, whose cognition also relies more and more on a combination of both virtual and physical reality experience. At the same time, cities, where we live, are witnessing a significant revolution in resource utilization, societal conditions, and spatial use. Along with the surge of new technologies and new data represented by computer technologies and multi-source urban data, the (new) Urban Science, as a transdisciplinary combination of urban computing, Artificial Intelligence, augmented reality, and human-computer interaction, rises over the past decade. Research institutions and programs on the (new) Urban Science are flourishing globally, and increasing related degree programs and courses are offered by colleges and universities worldwide to respond to the needs of this new era.

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APPLICATION OF RESEARCH ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN LA NDSCAPE PLANNING
Fangzheng LI, Danlu PENG, Boya WANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 56-69.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-0-020001
Abstract   PDF (1529KB)

Landscape planning adjusts spatial structures and functions by altering the types of land use / land cover and the patterns of landscapes, and thus further impacts ecosystem services. This paper examines the impacts of landscape planning on ecosystem services and draws the conclusion that the control over the types of land use / land cover, the altering of landscape patterns, and the adjustment of landscape functional characteristics could change the type, quality, and performance of ecosystem services, respectively. Through an overall review on the application of ecosystem service evaluation, spatial mapping, and scenario simulation, this paper further concludes their roles in landscape planning: ecosystem service evaluation provides means to ensure scientific landscape planning; spatial mapping serves as a basis to the decision making; and scenario simulation visualizes all kinds of possibilities for an optimal choice. At the same time, such applications in landscape planning practices, ranging from green space planning, ecological conservation redline planning, land use planning to biodiversity protection planning, are exemplified. Finally, this paper summarizes existing research findings and limitations and proposes that future research is expected to study the relationship between landscape planning and ecosystem services, to build a dynamic composite planning framework that can improve ecosystem services, and to propel the research on the tradeoff-and-synergy among ecosystem services in landscape planning.

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