Landscape Architecture Frontiers

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WONDERLAND IS A SLOW PLACE
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 1-6.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010005
Abstract   PDF (6043KB)

The author first examines the origin and development of the international Citta Slow movement, and points out that the growing Citta Slow movement in China can be understood as a New Ruralism Movement for urban residents and the vision of Citta Slow in China is a romantic ideal of the Beautiful Countryside. The article then argues that slowing cities which operate at a moderate speed can create more pleasant and livable environments through the smart use of space, an energy-saving development, and harmony between man and nature. Finally, in the critical period of Beautiful China Construction and the new stage of China’s urbanization, five principles are proposed for designers and developers to apply into planning and design of slowing cities.

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THE WONDERLAND AT THE FOOT OF MOUNT QISHAN
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010004
Abstract   PDF (6931KB)

As the core territory for the Zhou and Qin dynasties, the land at the foot of Mount Qishan in Shaanxi Province has significantly made the society and culture of China thrive and grow. The author retraced four routes to find out how the Zhou and Qin people explored and envisioned this landscape, both physically as settlements and spiritually as a wonderland. These routes include the migration path of the Zhou people from the north to the south of Mount Qishan to seek shelter from nomadic tribes; the path of the Zhou people moving from the west to the east along the Weihe River to conquer the Shang people and establish a new kingdom; the path of the Qin State to unify the other six states and found a great dynasty; and the route climbing from the Weihe Valley to Mount Taibai, the main peak of the Qinling Mountains. All the episodes happened on these routes had a profound influence on the ideology of Chinese society and cultural identity. For instance, the Zhou people’s observation on the landscape for farming and living, as well as their preference for the basin-shaped territory, significantly contributed to forming the Chinese geomancy (Feng Shui) and developed into an ideal territorial image of being the “kingdom in the center” (literally meaning “China” in Chinese); the artistic representation of sublime reflected the Qin people’s fight for survival and honor; and the described Kunlun Wonderland perfectly expresses both religious ideals and worldly desires.

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DECISION-SUPPORTIVE FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN DESIGN BASED ON THE TARGET OF SLOWING DOWN URBAN RESOURCE FLOWS: FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF URBAN METABOLISM
Luoyi YIN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020015
Abstract   PDF (14718KB)

The Urban Metabolism theory makes it possible to quantify design methods and strategies for sustainable urban design based on analysis of urban resource flows. Aiming at improving the urban environment, this paper takes four types of urban resources closely related to residents’ lives (i.e., water, energy, organic waste, and food) as evaluation objects and their flow rates as the evaluation indicators, and operates with design scenario models as the core to establish the decision-supportive framework for urban design, which consists of four basic parts: urban status analysis, design scenario setting, design alternatives, and design evaluation. This framework could quickly present design proposals and evaluate their expected performances, providing a basis for decision making in design practice. Then, China World Trade Center area in Beijing is taken as an example to interpret the practical value of the framework by providing guidelines for urban design practices of this area. Finally, the paper points out that instead of showing the optimal design strategy, the final output of the framework just provides decision makers an intuitive understanding of a specific design proposal and the impacts the design intervention would bring to the urban environment.

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AL-ULA OASIS AND THE LOST CIVILIZATION
Kongjian YU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 4-9.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-010003
Abstract   PDF (3765KB)

This article firstly explores how Al-Ula, an ancient city in northwestern Arabian Peninsula, thrived historically despite little rainfall, and reviews the historic civilizations ruled this oasis. Then, it points out that the misuse of limited water resource degraded the environmental capacity of the oasis, resulting in the imbalance between humans and the land and eventually the decline of civilizations. Finally, the article concludes that the oasis and the watershed it depends on is an integral system, whose lifeblood is maintained by water cycle restoration. It is also one of the key tasks of Landscape Architecture to explore ecological restoration and sustainable management of watershed in the sense of hydrology.

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RESTORATIVE SPATIAL PLANNING PRACTICE IN RESPONSE TO ISOLATION, SEGREGATION, AND INEQUALITY
Leiqing XU, Yu YAN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020016
Abstract   PDF (11604KB)

The article points out that the urban homogenization and social atomization status may lead to corresponding social problems including isolation, segregation, and inequality, and critically reviews their intrinsic consistency with urban development stages and the correlation between mental health and urban diseases. Based on the review of ideas such as Socially Restorative Urbanism and Socially Restorative Urban Design Model, the authors summarize a Socially Restorative Urban Design Model with five planning strategies — group size reduction, place-making, nature-based restoration, walkable system construction, and responsive city establishment — to realize human-human, human-space, human-nature, human-mobility, and humandata connections through taking planning as a tool of empowerment. In addition, the article reflects on the urban problems caused by the past urbanization process in China which pursued quick achievements and examines cases that could guide the new stage of Urban Remediation and Ecological Restoration, giving the same weight to social restoration as physical space improvement and ecological restoration.

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OBSERVATION AND REPRESENTATION: ON RECOGNITION AND EXPRESSION OF NATURAL SITES IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Ying ZENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 10-23.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020012
Abstract   PDF (17512KB)

In the education of Landscape Architecture, the way we view and depict a natural site is defined by the way we observe and express it. This paper starts with a comparison between the perspective and approach of traditional painting types (the realistic sketch, design sketch, and landscape painting) and those in Landscape Architecture. All of them involve observation (viewing) and expression (drawing) of natural beings and phenomena, where traditional paintings are in the pursuit of honest depiction of the forms or shapes. While in Landscape Architecture it emphasizes understanding and representing the evolutions and the complicated intrinsic relations of the authentic sites — in other words, to represent the nature of reality.

To be on-site, the use of body movement, and the evolutions and correlations of natural beings are the three most important principles to the observation and representation in Landscape Architecture. Combining with two cases in teaching and practice, this paper elaborates how to develop abstract forms and design concepts from the observation of authentic sites and how the trans-scaled reflection on the correlations about the sites can inspire a site-scaled design, providing references for the education and practice of Landscape Architecture in China.

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SETTLING ALONG, WITH, AND ON WATER IN THUA THIEN HUE, VIETNAM: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
Bruno De MEULDER, Kelly SHANNON
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 10-27.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020006
Abstract   PDF (17102KB)

This paper develops a water-based spatial biography of the Thua Thien Hue Province in Vietnam’s Central Highlands and critically interprets the territory’s intertwined contemporary challenges — a growing population, greater demands on agriculture, fisheries, and aquaculture, tourism and changes in annual rainwater, and sea level regimes. It is structured by four sections (typical geography and exceptional ecology, diverse settlement typologies, curse and perils of water, contemporary challenges) which interpretatively read the context. Historical analysis and mapping of present-day projects in the pipeline are complemented by extensive fieldwork in an attempt to reveal (and later build upon) the logics of the territory. It concludes with a series of projective design strategies developed by Research Urbanism and Architecture for the Thua Thien Hue Province Peoples’ Committee and the Hanoi-based investor Van Phu, which attempt to balance ecology with economy with a focus on lagoon restoration and new city and settlement types (for the living and the dead) which respond to the predicted consequences of climate change (particularly severe flooding). The project is premised on policy shifts from hardengineering to approaches that work as much as possible with natural means to simultaneously restore ecologies and generates opportunities to embed new sustainable economies. Not surprisingly, water urbanism strategies are key to this envisioned future development of the province.

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In-Between Waters /Intercepting Wetness: Inventing Rain in the Mining Landscape of Shanxi Province, China
Jieru (Hedy) HE
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 139-149.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050005
Abstract   PDF (11166KB)

Under the background of imposing engineered structures, including reservoirs and inter-basin water transfer infrastructures, being applied to solve drought caused by coal mining in Shanxi Province of China and floods caused by mineral mining in Western Ghats of India, the author reviews the intrinsic reason of water problems and recommends a water management solution that is design on “rain before floods” and “fields of wetness before flows of water.” Most magnificent engineered infrastructures are designed upon an idea of separating water from its milieu, thus becoming contained flows in pipes, channels, and reservoirs to solve water problems. To compensate for the shortage of existing water infrastructures, the author suggests gathering a regional-level landscape capacity for building “wetness” of resilience when facing problems of “water” in extremities. This is a radical shift compared with a problem-solving approach, as engineering does, to one that is grounded in landscape and uncovers opportunities.

The landscape research and design project introduced in this article aims to provide an alternative future for Shanxi Province, China, which seems arid and is challenged by monodevelopment mode. The research and design within the project are across four nested scales. A landscape infrastructure of intercepting wetness is taken as an underlying thread which initiates intertwined ecological, programmatic, temporal and material trajectories. On the other hand, the project demonstrates research, representation, design, and planning can actually inform one another, and the design remains open and adaptive to its changing environments.

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THE SPARK OF CONTEMPORARY LANDSCAPE CREATIVITY — THE FOUNDATION LANDSCAPE DESIGN STUDIO IN THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
Vincci MAK
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 24-37.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020010
Abstract   PDF (20036KB)

Traditional landscape design studio training starts with the learning of a classic or prominent landscape project, may it be through site observation or a trace-over / imitation exercise. Foundation year students in a landscape program typically take the landscape precedent project as a study ground, to learn about the landscape master’s design through the mimicking process in the trace-over exercise, or to learn about the articulation of spatial design through site observation.

Landscape Architecture, afterall, is a creative endeavor. Thus, an alternative approach is to start the fundamental training with the study of artistic processes, to foster appreciation in art and design, innovative concept development, and articulation in craftsmanship. Also, the contemporary discourse of Landscape Architecture is no longer simply about spatial design, but has transformed to require understanding of process, operation, step-by-step mechanism, movement, and how a system works. The performative and dynamic aspects of landscape are being valued nowadays.

Such ways of seeing landscapes require a different set of observation and representation methods and skills. In this article, the author shares how the pedagogical content and developments of the foundation year landscape design studio in the HKU Bachelor of Arts in Landscape Studies BA(LS) Program help train students with such new interpretations to contemporary Landscape Architecture.

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A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON URBAN WATERLOGGING BASED ON CITESPACE MAPPING KNOWLEDGE DOMAINS
Lingyu RAN, Yan ZHOU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 66-87.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-0-020002
Abstract   PDF (4029KB)

Cities have suffered from long-time waterlogging problems. A review of English and Chinese literature on “urban waterlogging” can help analyze the research progress and further explore methods and approaches to alleviate such problems in Chinese cities. By examining the literature from the Web of Science Core Collection database and CNKI database with CiteSpace, a Mapping Knowledge Domains tool, this paper aims to scientifically review the disciplinary structure, major research interests, and research hotspots of the issues of urban waterlogging. Through data analyses, it concludes that: 1) urban waterlogging is a hot topic that has been studied in a great number of subjects, with interdisciplinary studies and a continuous growth in Urban and Rural Planning, Geography, Landscape Architecture, etc. in recent years; 2) the research on waterlogging in representative subjects varies; 3) English and Chinese literature explores stormwater management and control measures from the perspectives of planning concepts, infrastructure, drainage systems, spatial regulation, management methods, and micromeasures; 4) research hotspots cover the concepts and measures of waterlogging control, hydrological processes and patterns, causes of waterlogging, and risk assessment and management; 5) the existing research mainly focuses on micro scales, and there is an absence of studies on ideal spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales, or on the correlation between urban hydrological processes and waterlogging formation mechanisms with spatial deployment of stormwater regulation approaches. Finally, according to existing research limitations, the paper proposes that: 1) future theoretical studies should explore the backgrounds, objectives, and application scenarios of various waterlogging control approaches; 2) studies are expected to explore spatial patterns and planning approaches at macro and medium scales; and 3) scholars should expand the territory of research by integrating with Hydrology.

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REINVENTING THE PUBLIC PARK — THE BLOCK IN DUBAI
Duncan DENLEY
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 134-145.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040010
Abstract   PDF (21824KB)

Recently completed, The Block was constructed over a seven-month period along the Dubai Water Canal in Dubai Design District, providing a much-celebrated public park for the people of Dubai. Through their re-purposing of seven hundred 30-ton concrete blocks left over from the canal construction, landscape architects, desert INK created countless play features for children, outdoor exercise areas, and food and beverage outlets. Breaking all public park stereotypes and incorporating an unconventional approach to design, The Block stands out as one of the most unique and innovative landscape designs in the Middle East, if not the world. With a clear brief to attract a diverse range of new visitors to d3, desert INK set out to create an extraordinary park which would attract children and families to this otherwise design-industry focused district so that different lifestyles could co-exist and the community could thrive.

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PLANNING OF SLOW-TRAVELING FACILITY SYSTEM FOR THE ANCIENT GREAT WALL CULTURAL HERITAGE CORRIDOR IN DATONG, SHANXI PROVINCE
Hongda WANG, Xiao FENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 116-133.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040009
Abstract   PDF (30291KB)

The Great Wall is a world cultural heritage and a treasure of human civilization. In 2017, the Government of Datong, Shanxi Province proposed to build a cultural heritage corridor of the ancient Great Wall. Based on deep investigation and meticulous analyses, the planning team envisioned a heritage corridor with a length of 258 km, covering a total area of 186 km2, in which the slow-traveling facility system, as an important component that integrates the construction, operation, and management of related heritage sites, provides sightseeing, recreational, and educational services. This article discusses the strategies to develop the slow-traveling facility system in the cultural heritage corridor, which adopts a low-interference structure according to the spatial distribution of heritage sites along the Great Wall, and applies the minimum cumulative resistance model and other scientific methods to analyze development suitability and ecological environment conditions of the project site. Based on the evaluation results, the slow-traveling facility system and the service node system are adaptively planned and designed, combined with a low-intervention interpretation system. Finally, the scales of facilities are designed based on an estimation of tourist amount to control the impact of construction on heritage sites and natural environment. As such, the balance between heritage conservation and tourism development is achieved.

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APPLICATION OF RESEARCH ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN LA NDSCAPE PLANNING
Fangzheng LI, Danlu PENG, Boya WANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 56-69.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-0-020001
Abstract   PDF (1529KB)

Landscape planning adjusts spatial structures and functions by altering the types of land use / land cover and the patterns of landscapes, and thus further impacts ecosystem services. This paper examines the impacts of landscape planning on ecosystem services and draws the conclusion that the control over the types of land use / land cover, the altering of landscape patterns, and the adjustment of landscape functional characteristics could change the type, quality, and performance of ecosystem services, respectively. Through an overall review on the application of ecosystem service evaluation, spatial mapping, and scenario simulation, this paper further concludes their roles in landscape planning: ecosystem service evaluation provides means to ensure scientific landscape planning; spatial mapping serves as a basis to the decision making; and scenario simulation visualizes all kinds of possibilities for an optimal choice. At the same time, such applications in landscape planning practices, ranging from green space planning, ecological conservation redline planning, land use planning to biodiversity protection planning, are exemplified. Finally, this paper summarizes existing research findings and limitations and proposes that future research is expected to study the relationship between landscape planning and ecosystem services, to build a dynamic composite planning framework that can improve ecosystem services, and to propel the research on the tradeoff-and-synergy among ecosystem services in landscape planning.

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STUDY OF URBAN GREENWAY PLANNING BASED ON MULTI-SOURCE DATA ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL POTENTIAL AND USER BEHAVIORS — THE GREENWAY ROUTE PLANNING OF HAIDIAN DISTRICT, BEIJING
Xixi CHEN, Liang LI, Li TAN, Lu YANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 50-65.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020013
Abstract   PDF (8984KB)

Urban greenways play a key role to a city’s nonautomobile commuting and help alleviate traffic congestion. Currently, China’s greenway planning research and practice focuses mostly on suburban areas where greenways provide ecological, historical, cultural, and recreational services, while fewer studies explore urban greenways that serve citizens’ daily non-automobile commuting and recreational needs. Compared with suburban ones, urban greenways often face more spatial limits in the built-up areas and need to respond to more challenging demands. Supported by multisource data and the rise of big data technologies, this research explores the methods of urban greenway route planning that are underpinned through GIS spatial analyses (potential evaluation on spatial construction conditions of greenways) and big-data-based user behavior analyses (of citizens’ daily use of greenways). Demonstrating the authentic planning case for Haidian District, Beijing, the research proposes a series of construction strategies to urban corridors of roads, waterways, and railways, respectively, which integrate green spaces with non-automobile system, in order to improve the services of linear spaces in cities.

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OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION OF THE COUNTRY PARK— NANCHANG RED EARTH HERITAGE PARK
Chong SUN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 134-145.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040008
Abstract   PDF (26199KB)

Located in the suburb of Nanchang City in Jiangxi Province, the Nanchang Red Earth Heritage Park is positioned as a country park that features vast vermicular red earth and Pinus massoniana forest. The off-site review and on-site exploration suggested that the site was confronting with problems of severer soil erosion, biodiversity loss, and intensive human intervention. Both to preserve the symbolic red earth in the site and to reduce cost due to limited budget, a country park requiring low intervention and maintenance was proposed. The park would also engage citizens with geological and scientific education programs and create diverse interactive experience. The design strategies were optimized through continuous site observation and reflection, both with historical and existing data in a broader sense and individual feeling by on-site exploration. This way of dialogue and connection to the site finally gives birth to a natural country park that stays in harmony with nature.

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DRAW-ING DRAWING — REVISITING THE DRAWINGS BY LAURIE OLIN
Albert Zhengneng CHEN, Taro Zheming CAI
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 58-79.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020009
Abstract   PDF (12313KB)

The idea of landscape is, to some extent, a cumulative interpretation of the way we see the world, reflecting our relationship with nature and culture. Landscape is thereby impossible to be assumed a priori but only to be understood through observation and representation. Between a broad spectrum of media, hand drawing presents presumably an oldest and simplest means for landscape representation, whether it is existing or imaginary. However, the creative yet oftentimes invisible process of draw-ing receives less attention from the spectators than its result. The paper takes an inquiry into this seemingly complicated process of looking and thinking based on the coordination of the draughtsman’s critical eye and skilful hand. First, the paper gives a careful reading upon some selected drawings from a recent exhibition of the renowned American landscape architect Laurie Olin, with three particular focuses — the reduction in representation, the composition of the observed landscape (perspectival composition and figurative composition), and the conjecturable intention behind drawing skills. Second, the paper attempts to unveil the evolution of Olin’s decades of training and practising of drawing and observation, and further argues the significance in the training of hand and the cultivation of the critical eye in Landscape Architecture pedagogy.

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THE INTEGRATED CATC HMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN IN NEW ZEALAND AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT TO CHINA’S PRACTICE
Zheng YANG, Yang ZHAO, Wu CHE, Wei CHEN, Zhenzi LI, Chentao JU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 28-41.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020008
Abstract   PDF (1932KB)

China’s current catchment planning often focuses on formulating overall strategies for flood control and water resource distribution from a perspective of water conservancy. Usually, such plans are developed at large scales, covering a huge territory. However, city-scaled analyses, technical strategies, or roadmaps responding to issues of urban flooding, water pollution, etc. are less integrated into the current catchment planning; there is also an absence of comprehensive management methods for medium- or small-scaled urban water bodies. Combing with a case study on integrated catchment management plans (ICMP) for the Hamilton City, New Zealand, this paper reviews and summarizes the idea, role, objectives, key sections, and implementation of ICMPs in New Zealand, including a series of core tasks ranging from the trans-administrative catchment management mechanism, comprehensive and operational objectives and the technical system to the integration with long-term urban planning and Resource Consent requirements. In view of the status quo and major problems in China's comprehensive management of urban water systems, as well as the gaps in the existing formulation and implementation of catchment planning, especially the absence of integrated planning methods for medium- or smallscaled catchments that have a more direct and stronger relation with urban development, New Zealand’s experience in ICMP preparation and implementation reflects a paradigm significance.

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CONFUSION OF GOALS — RETHINKING THE IMPLICATION OF DATA ANALYTICS AND MODELLING FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN INDUSTRY
Li WAN, Luoyi YIN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 38-49.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020014
Abstract   PDF (1355KB)

Inspired by the fast take-up of data analytics and modelling in urban planning and design in Chinese cities, this paper aims to address a serious knowledge gap in terms of using data to deliver better policy outcomes rather than technical outputs. Such a knowledge gap is discussed in the wider context of smart city development where technology deployment failed to deliver the expected policy benefits. Lessons thus can be, and should be, learnt from early experiments to prevent the data revolution in planning and design in Chinese cities from repeating the same failure. One of the key arguments is that, in order to leverage the potential power of data and analytics for the urban planning and design industry, a wider theoretical framework is required for rethinking the core role as well as core competence of the planning profession in China. It entails a diversion from the purely technical discourse and the disciplinary / professional silos, towards a sociotechnical perspective. A series of propositions are proposed to evoke more critical discussion about the digital agenda for urban planning and design.

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SLOWING DOWN FAST CITIES WITH DESIGNED EXPERIENCES
Sarah Williams GOLDHAGEN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 88-92.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-030009
Abstract   PDF (3829KB)

To challenge the stupefying homogeneities produced by dense and fast urban environments, designers should offer a range of experiences to create a “slowing city,” which first relies on the understanding of the character and range of “slow experiences,” then requires an empiricallydriven approach to attain it. Phenomenologically, slow experiences can be social or solitary; both are discussed. The former comes from “event” experiences that facilitate meaningful interactions among people, while the latter promotes a shift into “being mode” which can help replenish human’s attention. Using findings in psychology and neurocognition, this article suggests that architects, landscape designers, and urbanists adopt a scientifically-grounded phenomenological approach to designing healthy urban environments where people can flourish. More attention is required to investigate people’s experience of surfaces and textures, and of compositions with varying levels of patterned complexity, as well as the changeability of design features and approaches to combat habituation.

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CURATED VIEWSHEDS— LANDSCAPE PLANNING AND DESIGN OF THE MOUNT KUMGANG INTERNATIONAL TOURIST ZONE ON THE KOREAN PENINSULA
Yuhan LI
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 156-165.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050008
Abstract   PDF (17757KB)

Mount Kumgang, located in the middle of the eastern coastal area of the Korean Peninsula, has been a cultural symbol of this region historically. It stretches across two countries, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Republic of Korea (ROK). The former enjoys two thirds of the total area and rich natural landscape and cultural relics, which is now known as the Mount Kumgang International Tourist Zone. The design responds to the bond of both DPRK and ROK people through design approaches while celebrating the rich natural and cultural resources of Mount Kumgang. By building a tourist zone planning system based on a visual network, the design would improve the sight-seeing system for the both sides of Mount Kumgang and provide references for the local government on the future development of the area. However, when faced with challenges such as the inadequacy of literature, missing data, and difficulties in field survey, the author explored into the Korean culture and studied the blue-and-green-color landscape painting and line drawing techniques from the famous Korean painting Geumgang Jeondo and the “Panorama Map of Diamond Mountain” (1939), combining with computer-generated graphics in the design drawing. Meanwhile, to help audience better read the site and design concepts and strategies, two types of material models were also introduced. Finally, the suitable design strategies and deliberated representation together provide thoughts for the development and construction to Mount Kumgang in the future.

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Part-Land, Part-Water
Xiaoxuan LU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 128-129.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050006
Abstract   PDF (785KB)
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A Social-Economic-Natural Compound Ecosystem Constructed for Urban Rivers— Planning and Design for the remediation and Ecological Restoration of the Guitang River Watershed in Changsha City, China
Yuan LIU, Run WANG, Wenqin LU, Chiyan PENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 114-127.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040004
Abstract   PDF (16836KB)

Guitang River, a once natural river breeding a harmonious human-water relationship, is now the longest inland river of Changsha City, Hunan Province, China, suffering from severer water problems such as water shortage, environmental polloution, and ecological degradation, which heavily impede the urban development. Commissioned by Changsha Guitang River Catchment Development and Construction Co., Ltd., the project team employed 4 mathematic models including a hydrodynamic model of water systems, a water quality model, a hydrodynamic model of drainage networks, and a hydrological model of watersheds to generate an optimal planning scheme for restoring the natural water circulation with the most appropriate planning scheme. Strategies were proposed including the blue and green ecological network combined with urban functional zoning, natural river restoration, riparian space improvement, watershedscale ecological corridor construction, and neighborhood-scale sponge city construction. The whole planning and design, from a coordinated planning at the watershed scale to the river scale, and to specific neighborhood projects, is to establish a social-economic-natural compound ecosystem to balance urban development with ecosystem improvement, while promoting the sustainability of the river.

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VERBAL DRAWINGS: MAPPING LANDSCAPE IDEAS
Valerio MORABITO
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 38-57.   https://doi.org/.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020011
Abstract   PDF (27147KB)

Verbal drawings, as a particular drawing category of drawings, are discussed in this paper about its history, qualities, and what kind of role they could play in the design communication of contemporary landscape architecture. The definition of verbal drawings arises from the observation and reading of Rupestrian art and its process in making drawings and paintings. Rupestrian art was the first human written communication prior to the emergence of words and spoken communication. For this reason, Rupestrian art drawings and paintings are not just images to be seen; above all, they are texts to be read. They are written drawings using pictograms, ideograms, and psycho-ideograms to compose images with a specific grammar and syntax. These written images have three qualities: a sense of immediacy, a sense of beauty, and a sense of lightness. Representing human activities in particular environments, Rupestrian art drawings are not only the first landscape representations but also the early representations of the act of mapping, opening a connection between the art of cartography and the art of verbal drawings. Using examples, this paper explains the importance of ancient and modern mapping arts in connection with the discourse of contemporary landscape architecture by demonstrating how the senses of immediacy, beauty, and lightness help contemporary verbal drawings compete with the neutral, beautiful, quickly produced and consumed digital representations nowadays. In the end, the text proposes a confrontation between Umberto Eco’s concept of “open work” and verbal drawings — Verbal drawings might be intended more like “open frameworks” than “open works.” It is a concept that considers verbal drawings able to accept new ideas for extending their meanings and significance throughout the design process.

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OBSERVATIONS BEYOND THE SITE: UNFOLDING OF LANDSCAPE PROCESS IN THE DESIGN OF DUKE GARDEN IN KUNSHAN
Huilai SHI, Zhongjie LIN, Jiacheng CHEN
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 108-119.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040006
Abstract   PDF (17043KB)

Observation is the beginning of reading site and inspiring design. When the site lacks obvious features, designers not only need to observe in detail but also step out of the site’s physical boundaries and expand the scope of observation. This process involves reflection on the intrinsic factors of the site, seeking landscape reference in the broader context according to the subject’s core connotations, through which design concepts can emerge from the simulation, selection, and expression of scenarios. The new Duke Garden, located in the city of Kunshan in Jiangsu Province, is situated in a typical Chinese suburban area, which bears little distinction in geographical features. The ordinary site condition forced designers to search for deeper characteristics of the place through alternative methods which allow designers to examine the site from three perspectives: 1) through the study and comparison of precedents which share a spiritual lineage; 2) through the physiographical investigation on regional ecosystem to which the site belongs; and 3) through a revisit of the preceding phases of the project and a probe into the temporal connection between adjacent sites. Observations from these three perspectives have enabled the design of Duke Garden to explore contemporary spiritual connotations of the landscape typology of “garden” and intepret it through this project.

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PARTICIPATION, INTERPRETATION, AND REPRESENTATION OF LANDSCAPE DESIGN
Dong ZHANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 90-97.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-030006
Abstract   PDF (9128KB)

At the beginning of this interview, Zhang Dong, partner of Z+T Studio, believes that landscapes of each nation should be closely rooted in its own culture and designing landscapes which praise China’s cultural identity should be a part of Chinese designers’ values and beliefs. Beside of integrating with strategies of sustainability and resilience, landscape design should also combine with environmental education. Zhang summarizes a landscape design process into “two objective aspects and one subjective aspect,” and points out that a designer’s professional knowledge, social values, and aesthetic preferences together influence his / her acquisition of information from sites and the design what and how he / she will make. While recognizing the importance of ecology and public participation to landscape design, he stresses that design essentially is to solve problems in a creative way and landscape designers should not neglect the fundamentality of spatial creation and aesthetics to the profession and the discipline. Finally, he explains the Whole- Process Participation design mode adopted by Z+T Studio, and how it helps improve designers’ capacity in observation and representation.

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CONTROL-UNIT-BASED ANALYSIS OF THE ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION MEASURE SYSTEM AND ARRANGEMENT OF THE XIAONANHAI LAKE WATERSHED IN HUBEI PROVINCE, CHINA
Yang DING, Jinyong ZHAO, Wenqi PENG, Junbo YAN, Jian FENG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 42-55.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-020007
Abstract   PDF (6023KB)

To deal with the water environmental degradation and ecological damage of the Xiaonanhai Lake watershed in Songzi City of Hubei Province, China, this study first divided the watershed into 32 control units according to the administrative division and catchment zones, then analyzed the pollution source and load and calculated the water environmental capacity of the watershed with the water environment system model coupled by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool model and the MIKE 21 model. To better deal with different pollutants and divide the responsibility more efficiently, the study proposed a control-unit-based system of five ecological restoration measures including the three-stage constructed wetland, the natural wetland, the clean water corridor, the lakeshore buffer zone, and the emerged and floating plant belt. Finally, the performance evaluation of these measures was conducted under the “Dual Control” system of concentration control and total load control of pollutants. The result proved that the five measures could effectively reduce the total amount of COD, TN, TP, and NH3-N to improve the water quality, meeting the Surface Water Class Ⅲ Standard.

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STUDY ON Water-City Pattern strategies of ShenShan Special Cooperation Zone, China with Sponge City Construction at the Watershed Scale
Yi LI, Fei XUE, Ruiying JING, Yan WANG, Jian WANG
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 104-113.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040005
Abstract   PDF (5728KB)

This article focuses on the water-city pattern development in the ShenShan Special Cooperation Zone in China and discusses the watershed-based sponge city construction strategy. Specific to the challenges of the zone, this study attempts to establish the correspondence between watershed spatial construction and the control indicators of sponge city, providing rigid norms for future urban development to ensure the safety and health of the whole watershed. At a practical level, three strategies of water-city pattern construction are proposed in aspects of 1) sponge system layout, to increase the proportion of the ecological resources across the watershed by a high-level ecosystem conservation; 2) urban waterway planning, to protect the zone from floods by increasing the water network density as well as introducing infrastructures for flood storage and discharge; and 3) land development mode, to regulate resources to achieve balanced land development by dividing the zone into many “islands,” taking full advantage of flood plains, reserving the lakes and reservoirs, and introduce more ponds. As the zone is going to start high-speed development, this article studies strategies of the water-city pattern construction and discusses the innovation methods of promoting sustainable development with sponge city construction at the watershed scale.

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JINHUA MEMORIAL PARK IN SUINING
Zhaojie WU
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (5): 120-133.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040007
Abstract   PDF (31631KB)

Observation and representation are the fundamental and core processes and methods in landscape design. By transforming a historical industrial site into an urban cultural park for citizens’ recreational needs, the Jinhua Memorial Park in the Suining City demonstrates how landscape designers observe and represent in post-industrial renewal practice. Designers continuously deepen their understanding of the site through a process from site observation and perception, research and exploration to systematic analyses. During this process, designers were inspired by the industrial production process and textile products, and then applied such concepts in spatial arrangement and prototype for physical renovation. As the skeleton of spatial arrangement, the main road of the campus connects various functional spaces and landscape nodes of the park. Five design strategies, including in-situ preservation, transposition retention, material reuse, appearance protection, and spiritual revitalization, are applied to protect and reorganize the industrial heritages to recall the past prosperous scenes. Landscape design approaches, intuitive or implicit, are adopted to tie up the past, present, and future of the site while making a park that meets the needs of all kinds of users.

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THE RURAL IS NOT REMOTE — THE CASE OF COMPANY DRINKS
Kathrin BÖHM
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (6): 156-161.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-050011
Abstract   PDF (6995KB)

The article focuses on the undesirable binary between the rural and the urban and uses Company Drinks as an example of a reverse ruralurban relationship, where an inner city population migrates temporarily to the countryside, which is relevant to the hop-picking tradition (“hopping”) practiced by working-class families from London’s East End. In this case, a working-class community has developed its own rural practice, moving between rural and urban settings on a regular basis. Company Drinks is a new model cultural enterprise that uses the collective memory of hopping as a starting point to rethink and reintroduce an adaptive collective production cycle into East London everyday life. With various successful activities being held, going picking has been far from an East End tradition and become a universal activity recognized and appreciated across different cultures and landscapes. The author believes that rural-urban link cannot be controlled from a distance. Rural society offers knowledge and resource that can empower urban communities, and can test and provide conditions for alternatives to urban lifestyles.

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Ecological Planning Practices of the Yellow River National Wetland Park in Jinan Section
Philip ENQUIST, Yinying ZHOU, Drew WENSLEY, Alan LEWIS
Landsc. Archit. Front.    2019, 7 (4): 88-103.   https://doi.org/10.15302/J-LAF-1-040003
Abstract   PDF (24344KB)

Jinan in Shandong Province, China is a city withfavorable location — the Yellow River runs throughthis region from southwest to northeast whilethe notable world heritage Mount Tai is its southbackground. The low reach of the Yellow Riverwhere Jinan is located is a “suspended river,”which is caused by a large amount of sedimentsfrom the upper and middle reaches. Over thepast decades, the levee has ensured the city and villages free from floods. However, it blocks the connection between the north bank area of the Yellow River and the urban town. The problems of ecological imbalance, deterioration of aquatic environment, and fragmented habitats have become more acute. Since 2017, the City Design Practice team of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) has collaborated with the Jinan Municipal Government to envision a transformation of the riverfront from ecological, cultural, transportation, and economic aspects and further proposed the idea of building a continuous Yellow River National Wetland Park along the entire Yellow River. The design proposals address the national, watershed, regional, and city scales. From the concept proposed in the plan of the 183 km reach, to the planning strategies of the 30 km core demonstration area, and further to the specific design of the Autumn Colors on the Que and Huabuzhu Mountains Park, SOM has developed step by step from macro-planning to microdesign, to ensure the uniformity and consistency of the entire design at all scales. SOM looks forwards to presenting the Yellow River in Jinan as a proven model for other river cities to follow the construction of the Yellow River National Wetland Park, and providing a practical reference for the planning and design of the Yangtze River Basin and similar watersheds in other countries.

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