With the population boom and the rapid industrial and agricultural development, regional water demand has exceeded the supply capacity in Turpan. Modern water infrastructure not only made the unique ecosystem formed by the Karez out-of-balance, but also devitalized the oasis civilization and the indigenous cultural landscape associated with the Karez. Taking the Karez system as an example, this article proposes planning and design schemes and roadmaps based on a regional polycentric governance model to explore a new path of public environmental governance which coordinates the interests of all stakeholders. Four strategies are proposed: 1) establishing the water account management system; 2) establishing an ecological agriculture water saving and control mechanism; 3) introducing an agriculture-husbandry-fishery circular development mode; and 4) revitalizing abandoned space. By re-identifying water supply and demand, rebalancing the existing resources and regional development, and encouraging the role of landscape as ecological infrastructure, resilient landscape and sustainable resource utilization could be realized to maximize the public interest.