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ISSN 2096-0689
CN 11-9363/R (Online)
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Current Issue

, Volume 3 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: from pharmacology to neurocognitive models
Zhemeng Wu, Qian Wang
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (1): 1-11.
Abstract   PDF (0KB)
Schizophrenia is a typical mental disorder characterized by cognitive, social, and emotional impairments and by psychotic symptoms. For nearly a century, there have been ongoing discussions on the anatomical-functional connections between brain abnormalities and symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies in such patients show abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region that acts as an executive center in cognition processing. The disrupted brain connectivity between PFC and other brain structures (such as the limbic system, basal ganglia and thalamus) results in faulty information processing and cognition deficits. Dopamine receptors, which have his torically acted as vital targets in schizophrenia therapies, have complex roles in cognition. Here we reviewed dopamine’s role as a widespread neurotransmitter mediating the PFC-cognitive system. The imbalance of braindopamine level, especially the abnormal D1/D2receptors ratio, leads to dysfunctions in brain connectivity in patients with schizophrenia. Recent neurocognitive modeling studies suggest the imbalance of dopamine receptors affects the internal noise within brain networks, which may lead to reduced signal-to-noise ratio in the PFC neuron populations. Going forward, more researches focusing on the relationship between pharmacology and neurocognitive models are needed, in an effort to identify more effective and efficient ways to treat cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia.
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Epileptogenesis in Sturge-Weber syndrome
Lintian Cao, Guoming Luan
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (1): 12-16.
Abstract   PDF (0KB)
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a sporadic congenital neurocutaneous disorder characterized by facial port-wine stain, glaucoma and leptomeningeal angioma. It is hypothesized that somatic mutation in GNAQ (p.R183Q), which is associated with the disruption of vascular development, may be a possible mechanism of SWS. The neurological course of this disease may be progressive, and its major morbidity includes epilepsy, stroke-like episodes and intellectual retardation. The earlier the time point of the mutation, the severer the disease presents itself later in life. However, the relationship between SWS and epileptogenesis is still unknown.
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Bipolar electrocoagulation on functional cortex (BCFC) for intractable epilepsy involving eloquent cortex: a review
Xinghui He, Guoming Luan
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (1): 17-22.
Abstract   PDF (0KB)
Twenty percent to forty percent of patients with epilepsy are medically refractory. For these patients, epilepsy surgeries such as resecting the epileptogenic focus may provide an alternative option. However, when the epileptogenic focus is located in the eloquent cortex, the resection of epileptogenic focus may lead to unacceptable functional deficits. Bipolar electrocoagulation on functional cortex (BCFC) is a surgical technique that holds the same principles with multiple subpial transections (MST) and aims to benefit patients with epilepsy whose epileptogenic zone is located in the eloquent cortex. It uses thermal injury to interrupt the horizontal fibers in the cortex while mechanical injury is used in MST. Here, we reviewed the rationale, surgical procedure, laboratory research, and clinical application of BCFC. We also discussed the ongoing challenges of BCFC.
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The etiology, clinical features and medical treatment of somatotroph adenomas
Hua Gao, Jianhua Li, Yazhuo Zhang
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (1): 23-31.
Abstract   PDF (0KB)
Somatotroph adenomas lead to hypersecretion of growth hormones (GH) and may cause mass effects. Patients with somatotroph adenomas may present with acral and soft tissue enlargement, joint pain, heart and respiratory failure, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are therefore important in prolonging life and improving quality of life. Recent studies depicted the landscape of genetic and epigenetic changes in sporadic somatotroph adenomas. New approaches are being developed for genetic testing, diagnosis and surveillance, which are helpful in early diagnosis, treatment and disease control of somatotroph adenomas. Data suggest that patients with somatotroph adenomas are best treated with multidisciplinary teams composed of neuro-endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists and other specialists. This mini-review summarizes in a concise way the up-to-date discussion on the etiology, new diagnostic techniques and novel treatments of somatotroph adenomas.
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Research Article
Application of robotic-assisted endoscopic third ventriculostomy
Peng Zhao, Yinyan Wang, Jiwei Bai, Bin Li, Chuzhong Li, Songbai Gui, Xinsheng Wang, Xuyi Zong, Yazhuo Zhang
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (1): 32-36.
Abstract   PDF (0KB)
Objective: This case series study explored the application of ROSA (robot of stereotactic assistant) robotic-assisted endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Methods: Three patients (January 2016 - October 2017) diagnosed with hydrocephalus based on preoperative computed tomograph (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were recruited. Navigation planning scan was performed before operation. ROSA robot localization program was used to simulate and analyze the path planning of hydrocephalus ETV and store it in the system. All the three patients underwent robotic-assisted ETV. The patients’ clinical symptoms, imaging manifestations and related complications were evaluated, and a 3-month follow-up survey was conducted. Prognostic factors were also analyzed. Results: ETV under the guidance of ROSA robot was successfully performed on the three patients. CT, MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cine showed that the ventricles were narrowed, that the velocity and flow of the stoma were normal, and that the CSF flow was smooth. After discharge, the symptoms of hydrocephalus were significantly improved. Localization of the robot and design of the surgical path were key to success of the operation. Conclusions: ROSA robotic-assisted ETV is a feasible procedure. The patients recovered well, and the symptoms relieved. More efforts are needed to optimize artificial intelligence and the application of precision treatment in the nervous system.
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