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ISSN 2096-0689
CN 11-9363/R (Online)
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Current Issue

, Volume 3 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
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Review
Challenges faced for undertaking a stem cell based clinical trial in spinal cord injury in emerging countries
Harvinder Singh Chhabra, Kanchan Sarda
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (3): 1-8.  https://doi.org/10.3868/j.issn.2096-0689.2018.03.001
Abstract   PDF (9770KB)
Repair and regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is an unmet need and research into finding new avenues to achieve this are ongoing worldwide. Stem cells with their immense potential to proliferate and differentiate have been identified as prime candidates for spinal cord regeneration. Pre-clinical data on their efficacy has been very encouraging, especially in case of adult stem cells. Although clinical translation of these findings has not been so successful, due to the ease of obtaining autologous adult bone marrow stem cells and their perceived therapeutic potential, these cells have been offered as a “therapy” in many countries without any scientific evidence generated though a valid clinical trial. In this review, we attempt to highlight the need for conducting clinical trials and the challenges faced in case of emerging countries. The current scenario of regulations governing the use of stem cells in emerging countries is also discussed.
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Dopamine and cognitive function after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion: a brief review
Wenzhu Wang, Xu Liu, Yan Yu, Lixu Liu
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (3): 9-16.  https://doi.org/10.3868/j.issn.2096-0689.2018.03.002
Abstract   PDF (8862KB)
Global cerebral ischemia/hypoxia may occur due to various causes such as cardiac arrest, shock, and asphyxiation. Even though the patient’s life may be saved after cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is likely to occur and often results in neurological dysfunction. Apart from motor and speech impediments, patients with such injury may also suffer from impaired higher-level cognitive functions such as learning and memory, placing a heavy burden on families and society. Brain areas associated with the limbic system include the hippocampus, corpus striatum, and amygdala, which are linked with cognitive function. Those brain regions are easily damaged by hypoxia, and since they are connected with the dopaminergic pathway, global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion can damage the dopaminergic pathway as well and affect the projection of dopaminergic neurons in the limbic system. This review article examines the feasibility of using dopamine, a neurotransmitter heavily involved in cognitive function, in experimental research and clinical treatment of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Specifically, we examine the effects of dopamine on post-injury cognition and neuronal plasticity, with the ultimate goal of identifying a new tool for clinical treatment.
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Application of diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord injury
Changbin Liu, Chuan Qin, Degang Yang, Mingliang Yang, Jianjun Li
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (3): 17-25.  https://doi.org/10.3868/j.issn.2096-0689.2018.03.003
Abstract   PDF (11103KB)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique can detect the dispersion of water molecules in the white matter of the spinal cord, the integrity of the spinal fiber bundle, and the pathological changes after injury. Clinically, DTI is sensitive to acute and chronic spinal cord injuries, and is most commonly used for the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, multiple sclerosis, secondary brain damage after spinal cord injury, and spinal nerve root damage. In animal studies involving rats, monkeys, cattle, cats, pigs, dogs, etc., DTI could quantitatively analyze the microstructural and pathological changes of the injured spinal cord and provide a powerful auxiliary diagnosis for behavioral evaluation.
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Role of melatonin in spinal cord injury
Yingli Jing, Fan Bai, Yan Yu
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (3): 26-31.  https://doi.org/10.3868/j.issn.2096-0689.2018.03.004
Abstract   PDF (7477KB)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs the autonomic nervous system and is associated with dysfunction or failure of multiple organs. Rehabilitation after SCI is a complicated process that involves improvement of motor and sensory function and amelioration of complications. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that melatonin treatment could protect the neural tissues of the spinal cord from secondary injury after SCI. Melatonin is an indoleamine naturally produced by the pineal gland and other tissues. It can easily cross the blood-brain barrier and has been shown to have neuroprotective properties in animal models with neurological injury, such as traumatic brain injury and SCI. We reviewed the potential mechanisms of melatonin treatment reducing SCI-related complications such as disruption of microcirculation, neurogenic bowel dysfunction, and circadian disorders.
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A call for development: neurorehabilitation services
Peter A C Lim
Journal of Translational Neuroscience. 2018, 3 (3): 32-34.  https://doi.org/10.3868/j.issn.2096-0689.2018.03.005
Abstract   PDF (3675KB)
Physical medicine and rehabilitation focuses on the management of medical and functional consequences of disease and injury including relief of pain. The aging of populations worldwide presents an impending need for expansion of specialized healthcare services including neurorehabilitation. Stroke is a common neurological disease associated with aging, and resulted in 113 million Disability Adjusted Life Years lost worldwide in 2013. The medical rehabilitation team is well suited to manage the different aspects of disability and functioning, with significant benefits in terms of quality of life, societal and financial returns. Neurorehabilitation capacity building is important, along with establishment of standards for training, credentialing, accreditation, and continuing professional education.
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