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Journal of Translational Neuroscience    2019, Vol. 4 Issue (1) : 1-14     https://doi.org/10.3868/j. issn. 2096-0689. 2019. 01. 001
Review
Perspectives on mechanisms underlying remote ischemic conditioning against ischemic stroke
Changqing Xia1,2*, Xunming Ji2,3*
1.Department of Hematology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China
2.Beijing Institute for Brain disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China
3.Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China
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Abstract Ischemic stroke is a major neurological disease with limited effective therapeutic options except for thrombolysis and thrombectomy. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is an approach that promises an alternative to the current treatment portfolio. As an easy-handled, non-invasive regimen, it takes advantage of transient ischemia (currently often made through inflation and deflation of limb blood pressure cuff) to enhance the tolerance of vital organs to ischemia. RIC can be executed before, during and after the onset of stroke. The mechanisms of action of RIC employed at different stroke stages are similar and may involve humoral, neurological and inflammatory pathways. As new mechanisms underlying RIC-induced neuroprotection continue to be revealed, we review in this article some of the latest development in this field, including: ① RIC and RIC-induced fundamental change, hypoxia, as well as the role of hypoxia inducible factors against stroke; ② Potential role of RIC-induced extracellular vesicles in neuroprotection; ③ RIC-induced metabolic changes in tissue protection; ④ Potential effect of RIC on red blood cells (RBC) oxygen delivery; and ⑤ RIC and its anti-inflammatory potential.
Keywords remote ischemic conditioning (RIC)      stroke      hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)      exosome      oxygen delivery      inflammation      metabolomics      microRNA     
Issue Date: 25 March 2019
 Cite this article:   
Changqing Xia, Xunming Ji. Perspectives on mechanisms underlying remote ischemic conditioning against ischemic stroke[J]. Journal of Translational Neuroscience,2019, 4(1): 1-14.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/jtn/EN/10.3868/j. issn. 2096-0689. 2019. 01. 001
http://journal.hep.com.cn/jtn/EN/Y2019/V4/I1/1
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