There are many certain and uncertain design factors which have unrevealed rational effects on the generation of tensile damage and the stability of the circular tunnels during seismic actions. In this research paper, we have dedicated three certain and four uncertain design factors to quantify their rational effects using numerical simulations and the Sobol’s sensitivity indices. Main effects and interaction effects between the design factors have been determined supporting on variance-based global sensitivity analysis. The results detected that the concrete modulus of elasticity for the tunnel lining has the greatest effect on the tensile damage generation in the tunnel lining during the seismic action. In the other direction, the interactions between the concrete density and both of concrete modulus of elasticity and tunnel diameter have appreciable effects on the tensile damage. Furthermore, the tunnel diameter has the deciding effect on the stability of the tunnel structure. While the interaction between the tunnel diameter and concrete density has appreciable effect on the stability process. It is worthy to mention that Sobol’s sensitivity indices manifested strong efficiency in detecting the roles of each design factor in cooperation with the numerical simulations explaining the responses of the circular tunnel during seismic actions.
The probabilistic risk of arch dam failure under thermal loading is studied. The incorporated uncertainties, which are defined as random variables, are associated with the most affecting structural (material) properties of concrete and thermal loading conditions. Karaj arch dam is selected as case study. The dam is numerically modeled along with its foundation in three-dimensional space; the temperature and thermal stress distribution is investigated during the operating phase. The deterministic thermal finite element analysis of the dam is combined with the structural reliability methods in order to obtain thermal response predictions, and estimate the probability of failure in the risk analysis context. The tensile overstressing failure mode is considered for the reliability analysis. The thermal loading includes ambient air and reservoir temperature variations. The effect of solar radiation is considered by an increase in the ambient temperatures. Three reliability methods are employed: the first-order second-moment method, the first-order reliability method, and the Monte-Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube sampling. The estimated failure probabilities are discussed and the sensitivity of random variables is investigated. Although most of the studies in this line of research are used only for academic purposes, the results of this investigation can be used for both academic and engineering purposes.
Particle damping technology has attracted extensive research and engineering application interest in the field of vibration control due to its prominent advantages, including wide working frequency bands, ease of installation, longer durability and insensitivity to extreme temperatures. To introduce particle damping technology to long-period structure seismic control, a novel multilayer compartmental particle damper (MCPD) was proposed, and a 1/20 scale test model of a typical long-period self-anchored suspension bridge with a single tower was designed and fabricated. The model was subjected to a series of shaking table tests with and without the MCPD. The results showed that the seismic responses of the flexible or semi-flexible bridge towers of long-period bridges influence the seismic responses of the main beam. The MCPD can be conveniently installed on the main beam and bridge tower and can effectively reduce the longitudinal peak displacement and the root mean square acceleration of the main beam and tower. In addition, no particle accumulation was observed during the tests. A well-designed MCPD can achieve significant damping for long-period structures under seismic excitations of different intensities. These results indicate that the application of MCPDs for seismic control of single-tower self-anchored suspension bridges and other long-period structures is viable.
Frequent failures due to foreign particle impacts are observed in compressor blades of the interceptor fighter MIG-23 aircraft engines in the Ethiopian air force, supplied by the Dejen Aviation Industry. In this paper, we made an attempt to identify the causes of failure and hence recommend the suitable materials to withstand the foreign particle impacts. Modal and stress analysis of one of the recently failed MIG-23 gas turbine compressor blades made up of the following Aluminum based alloys: 6061-T6, 7075-T6, and 2024-T4, has been performed, apart from the impact analysis of the rotor blades hit by a granite stone. The numerical results are correlated to the practical observations. Based on the modal, stress and impact analysis and the material properties of the three considered alloys, alloy 7075-T6 has been recommended as the blade material.
Homogenization is a promising approach to capture the behavior of complex structures like corrugated panels. It enables us to replace high-cost shell models with stiffness-equivalent orthotropic plate alternatives. Many homogenization models for corrugated panels of different shapes have been proposed. However, there is a lack of investigations for verifying their accuracy and reliability. In addition, in the recent trend of development of smoothed finite element methods, the cell-based smoothed three-node Mindlin plate element (CS-MIN3) based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) has been proposed and successfully applied to many analyses of plate and shell structures. Thus, this paper further extends the CS-MIN3 by integrating itself with homogenization models to give homogenization methods. In these methods, the equivalent extensional, bending, and transverse shear stiffness components which constitute the equivalent orthotropic plate models are represented in explicit analytical expressions. Using the results of ANSYS and ABAQUS shell simulations as references, some numerical examples are conducted to verify the accuracy and reliability of the homogenization methods for static analyses of trapezoidally and sinusoidally corrugated panels.
In view of China’s development trend of green building and building industrialization, based on the emerging requirements of the structural engineering community, the development and proposition of novel resource-saving high-performance steel-concrete composite structural systems with adequate safety and durability has become a kernel development trend in structural engineering. This paper provides a state of the art review of China’s cutting-edge research and technologies in steel-concrete composite structures in recent years, including the building engineering, the bridge engineering and the special engineering. This paper summarizes the technical principles and applications of the long-span bi-directional composite structures, the long-span composite transfer structures, the comprehensive crack control technique based on uplift-restricted and slip-permitted (URSP) connectors, the steel plate concrete composite (SPCC) strengthen technique, and the innovative composite joints. By improving and revising traditional structure types, the comprehensive superiority of steel-concrete composite structures is well elicited. The research results also indicate that the high-performance steel-concrete composite structures have a promising popularizing prospect in the future.
Under the effect of the ascending loading, the behavior of reinforced concrete structures is rather non linear. Research in industry and science aims to extend forward the use of non-linear calculation of fiber concrete for structural parts such as columns, veils and pious, as the fiber concrete is more ductile behavior then the classical concrete behavior. The formulation of the element has been established for modeling the nonlinear behavior of elastic structures in three dimensions, based on the displacement method. For the behavior of concrete and fiber concrete compressive and tensile strength (stress-strain) the uniaxial formulation is used. For steel bi-linear relationship is used. The approach is based on the discretization of the cross section trapezoidal tables. Forming the stiffness matrix of the section, the integral of the surface is calculated as the sum of the integrals on each of the cutting trapezoids. To integrate on the trapeze we have adopted the type of Simpson integration scheme.
In order to determine the effect of Natural Pozzolan (NP) content on the mechanical properties and durability characteristics on Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) as repair material. This study focused on the evaluation of the most factors influencing compatibility between the repair material and the base concrete including mechanicals properties such as, compressive and flexural strengths, elastic modulus, capillary absorption and drying shrinkage. The experimental results showed that natural pozzolan reduces the compressive strength and the flexural strength of ECC at all ages. The elastic modulus of ECC was remarkably lower than that of normal-strength concrete. This lower Young’s modulus is desirable for repair concrete, because it prevents the stresses induced by restrained shrinkage. In addition, the incorporation of high-volume natural pozzolan decreases significantly the coefficient of capillary absorption at long term and increases the drying shrinkage. Generally, based on the results obtained in the present experimental investigation, ECC can be used effectively as an overlay material over existing parent concrete.
The aging structure as well as the considerable increase of heavy-traffic load on Germany’s motorways and trunk roads encourages the use of innovative, sound and reliable methods for the structural assessment on network level as well as on project level. Essential elements for this are data, which allow a reliable assessment. For a holistic approach to structural pavement assessment performance orientated measurements will be necessary. In combination with functional parameters as well as write-down models, strategically motivated decision making processes will be useful combined with technically motivated decision processes. For the application at the network level, the available methods for performance orientated measurements are still challenging, as they are based either on testing drill-cores or on non-traffic speed methods. In recent years significant innovation steps have been made to bring traffic speed bearing capacity measurements and methods for evaluating pavement structures on the road. The paper summarizes the actual assessment procedures in Germany as well as the ongoing work on the development and implementation of new methods and techniques.