When a historic fa?ade needs to be preserved or when the seismic considerations favor use of a concrete wall system and fire considerations limit exterior thermal insulation, one needs to use interior thermal insulation systems. Interior thermal insulation systems are less effective than the exterior systems and will not reduce the effect of thermal bridges. Yet they may be successfully used and, in many instances, are recommended as a complement to the exterior insulation. This paper presents one of these cases. It is focused on the most successful applications of capillary active, dynamic interior thermal insulation. This happens when such insulation is integrated with heating, cooling and ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) system. Starting with a pioneering work of the Technical University in Dresden in development of capillary active interior insulations, we propose a next generation, namely, a bio-fiber thermal insulation. When completing the review, this paper proposes a concept of a joint research project to be undertaken by partners from the US (where improvement of indoor climate in exposed coastal areas is needed), China (indoor climate in non-air conditioned concrete buildings is an issue), and Germany (where the bio-fiber technology has been developed).