This article describes a novel approach for deciding optimal horizontal extent of soil domain to be used for finite element based numerical dynamic soil structure interaction (SSI) studies. SSI model for a 12 storied building frame, supported on pile foundation-soil system, is developed in the finite element based software framework, OpenSEES. Three different structure-foundation configurations are analyzed under different ground motion characteristics. Lateral extent of soil domain, along with the soil properties, were varied exhaustively for a particular structural configuration. Based on the reduction in the variation of acceleration response at different locations in the SSI system (quantified by normalized root mean square error, NRMSE), the optimum lateral extent of the soil domain is prescribed for various structural widths, soil types and peak ground acceleration levels of ground motion. Compared to the past studies, error estimation analysis shows that the relationships prescribed in the present study are credible and more inclusive of the various factors that influence SSI. These relationships can be readily applied for deciding upon the lateral extent of the soil domain for conducting precise SSI analysis with reduced computational time.
In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) in the construction industry. However, the E-modulus and strength of such members at high service temperatures is still unknown. Modulus and strength of FRP at high service temperatures are highly required parameters for full design. The knowledge and application of this could lead to a cost effective and practical consideration in fire safety design. Thus, this paper proposes design methods for calculating the E-modulus and strength of FRP members at different temperatures. Experimental data from literature were normalized and compared with the results predicted by this method. It was found that the proposed design methods conservatively estimate the E-modulus and strength of FRP structural members. In addition, comparison was also made with direct references to the real behavior of materials. It was found to be satisfactory. Finally, an application is provided.
Earthquake-induced landslides are difficult to assess and predict owing to the inherent unpredictability of earthquakes. In most existing studies, the landslide potential is statistically assessed by collecting and analyzing the data of historical landslide events and earthquake observation records. Unlike rainfall-induced landslides, earthquake-induced landslides cannot be predicted in advance using real-time monitoring systems, and the development of the models for these landslides should instead depend on early earthquake warnings and estimations. Hence, in this study, factor analysis was performed and the frequency distribution method was employed to investigate the potential risk of the landslides caused by earthquakes. Factors such as the slope gradient, lithology (geology), aspect, and elevation were selected and classified as influential factors to facilitate the construction of a landslide database for the area of study.
Dynamic Relaxation Method (DRM) is an explicit approach for solving the simultaneous systems of equations. In this tactic, the fictitious mass and damping are added to the static governing equations, and an artificial dynamic system is constructed. By using DRM for nonlinear analysis, the structural static equilibrium path is obtained. This outcome is extremely valuable, since it leads to the behavior of structures. Among the finding related to the structural static path are the critical and buckling points for nonlinear structures. In this paper, a new way for calculating the load factor is proposed by setting the external work zero. Mixing the dynamic relaxation scheme with external work technique has not been formulated so far. In all incremental-iterative methods, the load factor increment sign should be determinated by extra calculations. This sign leads to increase or decrease of the load increment. It is worth emphasizing that sign of the load factor increment changes at the load limit points. Therefore, the sign determinations are required in the common work control methods. These disadvantages are eliminated in the proposed algorithm. In fact, the suggested load factor depends only on the Dynamic Relaxation (DR) fictitious parameters. Besides, all DR calculations are performed via vector operation. Moreover, the load factor is calculated only by one formula, and it has the same relation in the all solution processes. In contrast to the arc length techniques, which requires the sign determined, the proposed scheme does not need any sign finding. It is shown that author’s technique is quicker than the other dynamic relaxation strategies. To prove the capability and efficiency of the presented scheme, several numerical tests are performed. The results indicate that the suggested approach can trace the complex structural static paths, even in the snap-back and snap-through parts.
Based on engineering practices of four typical traffic immersed tunnels built in China, this paper details the features of the four dominant foundation treatment methods for immersed tunnel construction: pile foundation, sand flow foundation, grouting foundation, and gravel bedding foundation. Subsoil stress time-history of different method are specified first, plus a summary of settlement assessment method for foundation quality control. Further, a comprehensive comparison of settlement and cost of these four foundation treatment methods is conducted to highlights the specific merits, disadvantages and conditions encountered in each foundation treatment method, based on real projects information. The findings of this article could henceforth be applied to foundation treatment work in immersed tube tunnel construction.
Safety margin and construction costs are two conflicting goals for a structure. By providing a fuse in a structure that is triggered at a certain level of over-loading, further increase of loading is prohibited and failure of the structure is changed to a safer mode. As overloading is controlled and a safer failure mode is enforced, a fused structure requires a smaller safety factor thus leading to more economical construction without compromising safety. The use of a fuse will also facilitate safer use of advanced construction materials such as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. In this case, a fuse can transfer the sudden and dangerous failure mode associated with brittle FRP debonding or rupture to a safe and ductile failure mode at the fuse location. This paper introduces a new type of fused structure as well as an associated design philosophy and approach, in addition to examples of engineering applications.
The structural behavior of prestressed high strength steel (HSS) tubular members is investigated through the execution of advanced finite element modeling. Numerical models are developed and validated against published experimental data on HSS tubular members subjected to different levels of initial prestress and loaded either in tension or compression. The effect of the presence or absence of grouting on the strength and ductility of the members is also considered. To numerically replicate the structural response recorded in the tests, some key modeling features including the employed numerical solver, the adopted material models and the element types warrant careful consideration. Upon developing of the finite element models, the numerically generated ultimate loads, the corresponding failure modes and the full load-deformation curves are compared to the experimental ones, indicating a successful validation. As anticipated, prestressing enhances the load-bearing capacity for the tensile members, whereas it is detrimental for the compressive ones. A series of parametric studies is performed to assess the influence of key factors on the structural response of prestressed HSS members and the obtained results are discussed. Design guidance for tensile and compressive prestressed tubular members is also provided.