Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

ISSN 2095-2430 (Print)
ISSN 2095-2449 (Online)
CN 10-1023/X
Postal Subscription Code 80-968
2018 Impact Factor: 1.272
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Truss-arch model for shear strength of seismic-damaged SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets
Sheng PENG, Chengxiang XU, Xiaoqiang LIU
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0557-z
Abstract   HTML   PDF (1292KB)

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials are important reinforcing substances which are widely used in the shear strengthening of seismic-damage steel reinforced concrete (SRC) frame structures. To investigate the shear strength of SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets, experimental observations on eight seismic-damaged SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets were conducted at Yangtze University and existing experimental data of 49 SRC columns are presented. Based on the existing experiments, the theories of damage degree, zoning analysis of concrete, and strengthening material of the column are adopted. To present the expression formula of the shear strength of SRC frame columns strengthened with CFRP sheets, the contributions of strengthening material and transverse reinforcement to shear strength in the truss model are considered, based on the truss-arch model. The contribution of arch action is also considered through the analysis of the whole concrete and that of the three zones of the concrete are also considered. The formula is verified, and the calculated results are found to match well with the experimental results. Results indicate that the proposed whole analysis model can improve the accuracy of shear strength predictions of shear seismic-damaged SRC frame columns reinforced with CFRP sheets.

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Prediction of shield tunneling-induced ground settlement using machine learning techniques
Renpeng CHEN, Pin ZHANG, Huaina WU, Zhiteng WANG, Zhiquan ZHONG
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0561-3
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Predicting the tunneling-induced maximum ground surface settlement is a complex problem since the settlement depends on plenty of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study investigates the efficiency and feasibility of six machine learning (ML) algorithms, namely, back-propagation neural network, wavelet neural network, general regression neural network (GRNN), extreme learning machine, support vector machine and random forest (RF), to predict tunneling-induced settlement. Field data sets including geological conditions, shield operational parameters, and tunnel geometry collected from four sections of tunnel with a total of 3.93 km are used to build models. Three indicators, mean absolute error, root mean absolute error, and coefficient of determination the (R2) are used to demonstrate the performance of each computational model. The results indicated that ML algorithms have great potential to predict tunneling-induced settlement, compared with the traditional multivariate linear regression method. GRNN and RF algorithms show the best performance among six ML algorithms, which accurately recognize the evolution of tunneling-induced settlement. The correlation between the input variables and settlement is also investigated by Pearson correlation coefficient.

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Centrifuge experiment and numerical analysis of an air-backed plate subjected to underwater shock loading
Zhijie HUANG, Xiaodan REN, Zuyu CHEN, Daosheng LING
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0559-x
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In this study, systematic centrifuge experiments and numerical studies are conducted to investigate the effect of shock loads due to an underwater explosion on the dynamic responses of an air-backed steel plate. Numerical simulations with three different models of pressure time history generated by underwater explosion were carried out. The first model of pressure time history was measured in test. The second model to predict the time history of shock wave pressure from an underwater explosion was created by Cole in 1948. Coefficients of Cole’s formulas are determined experimentally. The third model was developed by Zamyshlyaev and Yakovlev in 1973. All of them are implemented into the numerical model to calculate the shock responses of the plate. Simulated peak strains obtained from the three models are compared with the experimental results, yielding average relative differences of 21.39%, 45.73%, and 13.92%, respectively. The Russell error technique is used to quantitatively analyze the correlation between the numerical and experimental results. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulated strains for most measurement points on the steel plate are acceptable. By changing the scaled distances, different shock impulses were obtained and exerted on the steel plate. Systematic numerical studies are performed to investigate the effect of the accumulated shock impulse on the peak strains. The numerical and experimental results suggest that the peak strains are strongly dependent on the accumulated shock impulse.

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A numerical study of prestressed high strength steel tubular members
Michaela GKANTOU, Marios THEOFANOUS, Charalampos BANIOTOPOULOS
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0547-1
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The structural behavior of prestressed high strength steel (HSS) tubular members is investigated through the execution of advanced finite element modeling. Numerical models are developed and validated against published experimental data on HSS tubular members subjected to different levels of initial prestress and loaded either in tension or compression. The effect of the presence or absence of grouting on the strength and ductility of the members is also considered. To numerically replicate the structural response recorded in the tests, some key modeling features including the employed numerical solver, the adopted material models and the element types warrant careful consideration. Upon developing of the finite element models, the numerically generated ultimate loads, the corresponding failure modes and the full load-deformation curves are compared to the experimental ones, indicating a successful validation. As anticipated, prestressing enhances the load-bearing capacity for the tensile members, whereas it is detrimental for the compressive ones. A series of parametric studies is performed to assess the influence of key factors on the structural response of prestressed HSS members and the obtained results are discussed. Design guidance for tensile and compressive prestressed tubular members is also provided.

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Investigating the influence of delamination on the stiffness of composite pipes under compressive transverse loading using cohesive zone method
Sattar MALEKI, Roham RAFIEE, Abolfazl HASANNIA, Mohammad Reza HABIBAGAHI
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0555-1
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The effect of delamination on the stiffness reduction of composite pipes is studied in this research. The stiffness test of filament wound composite pipes is simulated using cohesive zone method. The modeling is accomplished to study the effect of the geometrical parameters including delamination size and its position with respect to loading direction on stiffness of the composite pipes. At first, finite element results for stiffness test of a perfect pipe without delamination are validated with the experimental results according to ASTM D2412. It is seen that the finite element results agree well with experimental results. Then the finite element model is developed for composite pips with delaminated areas with different primary shapes. Thus, the effect of the size of delaminated region on longitudinal and tangential directions and also its orientation with respect to loading direction on delamination propagation and stiffness reduction of the pipes is assessed.

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Global sensitivity analysis of certain and uncertain factors for a circular tunnel under seismic action
Nazim Abdul NARIMAN, Raja Rizwan HUSSAIN, Ilham Ibrahim MOHAMMAD, Peyman KARAMPOUR
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0548-0
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There are many certain and uncertain design factors which have unrevealed rational effects on the generation of tensile damage and the stability of the circular tunnels during seismic actions. In this research paper, we have dedicated three certain and four uncertain design factors to quantify their rational effects using numerical simulations and the Sobol’s sensitivity indices. Main effects and interaction effects between the design factors have been determined supporting on variance-based global sensitivity analysis. The results detected that the concrete modulus of elasticity for the tunnel lining has the greatest effect on the tensile damage generation in the tunnel lining during the seismic action. In the other direction, the interactions between the concrete density and both of concrete modulus of elasticity and tunnel diameter have appreciable effects on the tensile damage. Furthermore, the tunnel diameter has the deciding effect on the stability of the tunnel structure. While the interaction between the tunnel diameter and concrete density has appreciable effect on the stability process. It is worthy to mention that Sobol’s sensitivity indices manifested strong efficiency in detecting the roles of each design factor in cooperation with the numerical simulations explaining the responses of the circular tunnel during seismic actions.

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