Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

ISSN 2095-2430 (Print)
ISSN 2095-2449 (Online)
CN 10-1023/X
Postal Subscription Code 80-968
2019 Impact Factor: 1.68
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A step forward towards a comprehensive framework for assessing liquefaction land damage vulnerability: Exploration from historical data
Mahmood AHMAD, Xiao-Wei TANG, Jiang-Nan QIU, Feezan AHMAD, Wen-Jing GU
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng..
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The unprecedented liquefaction-related land damage during earthquakes has highlighted the need to develop a model that better interprets the liquefaction land damage vulnerability (LLDV) when determining whether liquefaction is likely to cause damage at the ground’s surface. This paper presents the development of a novel comprehensive framework based on select case history records of cone penetration tests using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) methodology to assess seismic soil liquefaction and liquefaction land damage potentials in one model. The BBN-based LLDV model is developed by integrating multi-related factors of seismic soil liquefaction and its induced hazards using a machine learning (ML) algorithm-K2 and domain knowledge (DK) data fusion methodology. Compared with the C4.5 decision tree-J48 model, naive Bayesian (NB) classifier, and BBN-K2 ML prediction methods in terms of overall accuracy and the Cohen’s kappa coefficient, the proposed BBN K2 and DK model has a better performance and provides a substitutive novel LLDV framework for characterizing the vulnerability of land to liquefaction-induced damage. The proposed model not only predicts quantitatively the seismic soil liquefaction potential and its ground damage potential probability but can also identify the main reasons and fault-finding state combinations, and the results are likely to assist in decisions on seismic risk mitigation measures for sustainable development. The proposed model is simple to perform in practice and provides a step toward a more sophisticated liquefaction risk assessment modeling. This study also interprets the BBN model sensitivity analysis and most probable explanation of seismic soil liquefied sites based on an engineering point of view.

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Uncertainty propagation in dynamics of composite plates: A semi-analytical non-sampling-based approach
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng..
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In this study, the influences of spatially varying stochastic properties on free vibration analysis of composite plates were investigated via development of a new approach named the deterministic-stochastic Galerkin-based semi-analytical method. The material properties including tensile modulus, shear modulus, and density of the plate were assumed to be spatially varying and uncertain. Gaussian fields with first-order Markov kernels were utilized to define the aforementioned material properties. The stochastic fields were decomposed via application of the Karhunen-Loeve theorem. A first-order shear deformation theory was assumed, following which the displacement field was defined using admissible trigonometric modes to derive the potential and kinetic energies. The stochastic equations of motion of the plate were obtained using the variational principle. The deterministic-stochastic Galerkin-based method was utilized to find the probability space of natural frequencies, and the corresponding mode shapes of the plate were determined using a polynomial chaos approach. The proposed method significantly reduced the size of the mathematical models of the structure, which is very useful for enhancing the computational efficiency of stochastic simulations. The methodology was verified using a stochastic finite element method and the available results in literature. The sensitivity of natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes due to the uncertainty of material properties was investigated, and the results indicated that the higher-order modes are more sensitive to uncertainty propagation in spatially varying properties.

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Progressive collapse of 2D reinforced concrete structures under sudden column removal
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng..
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Once a column in building is removed due to gas explosion, vehicle impact, terrorist attack, earthquake or any natural disaster, the loading supported by removed column transfers to neighboring structural elements. If these elements are unable to resist the supplementary loading, they continue to fail, which leads to progressive collapse of building. In this paper, an efficient strategy to model and simulate the progressive collapse of multi-story reinforced concrete structure under sudden column removal is presented. The strategy is subdivided into several connected steps including failure mechanism creation, MBS dynamic analysis and dynamic contact simulation, the latter is solved by using conserving/decaying scheme to handle the stiff nonlinear dynamic equations. The effect of gravity loads, structure-ground contact, and structure-structure contact are accounted for as well. The main novelty in this study consists in the introduction of failure function, and the proper manner to control the mechanism creation of a frame until its total failure. Moreover, this contribution pertains to a very thorough investigation of progressive collapse of the structure under sudden column removal. The proposed methodology is applied to a six-story frame, and many different progressive collapse scenarios are investigated. The results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed strategy.

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An improved design method to predict the E-modulus and strength of FRP composites at different temperatures
Mohammed FARUQI, Gobishanker RAJASKANTHAN, Breanna BAILEY, Francisco AGUINIGA
Front. Struct. Civ. Eng..
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In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) in the construction industry. However, the E-modulus and strength of such members at high service temperatures is still unknown. Modulus and strength of FRP at high service temperatures are highly required parameters for full design. The knowledge and application of this could lead to a cost effective and practical consideration in fire safety design. Thus, this paper proposes design methods for calculating the E-modulus and strength of FRP members at different temperatures. Experimental data from literature were normalized and compared with the results predicted by this method. It was found that the proposed design methods conservatively estimate the E-modulus and strength of FRP structural members. In addition, comparison was also made with direct references to the real behavior of materials. It was found to be satisfactory. Finally, an application is provided.

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