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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2020, Vol. 14 Issue (3) : 731-745
Centrifuge experiments for shallow tunnels at active reverse fault intersection
School of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 , Iran
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Tunnels extend in large stretches with continuous lengths of up to hundreds of kilometers which are vulnerable to faulting in earthquake-prone areas. Assessing the interaction of soil and tunnel at an intersection with an active fault during an earthquake can be a beneficial guideline for tunnel design engineers. Here, a series of 4 centrifuge tests are planned and tested on continuous tunnels. Dip-slip surface faulting in reverse mechanism of 60-degree is modeled by a fault simulator box in a quasi-static manner. Failure mechanism, progression and locations of damages to the tunnels are assessed through a gradual increase in Permanent Ground Displacement (PGD). The ground surface deformations and strains, fault surface trace, fault scarp and the sinkhole caused by fault movement are observed here. These ground surface deformations are major threats to stability, safety and serviceability of the structures. According to the observations, the modeled tunnels are vulnerable to reverse fault rupture and but the functionality loss is not abrupt, and the tunnel will be able to tolerate some fault displacements. By monitoring the progress of damage states by increasing PGD, the fragility curves corresponding to each damage state were plotted and interpreted in related figures.

Keywords reverse fault rupture      continuous tunnel      geotechnical centrifuge      ground surface deformations      fragility curves     
Corresponding Author(s): Abbas GHALANDARZADEH   
Just Accepted Date: 24 March 2020   Online First Date: 11 May 2020    Issue Date: 13 July 2020
 Cite this article:   
Mehdi SABAGH,Abbas GHALANDARZADEH. Centrifuge experiments for shallow tunnels at active reverse fault intersection[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2020, 14(3): 731-745.
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parameters model prototype
faulting simulator box dimensions 100 cm × 60 cm × 60 cm
model dimensions 93 cm × 50 cm × 30 cm 56 m × 30 m × 18 m
tunnel length 93 cm × 93 cm 56 m
external diameter of tunnels 11.2 and 16.2 cm 6.72 and 9.72 m
internal diameter of tunnels 10.0 and 15 cm 6.00 and 9.00 m
tunnel lining thickness 0.6 cm 36 cm
Young’s modulus 18 GPa 18 GPa
Tab.1  Scale model and prototype dimensions
Fig.1  Faulting simulator box: (a) schematic view; (b) realistic picture.
Fig.2  Firouzkuh #161 sand grading chart.
specific gravity maximum void ratio emax ? minimum void ratio emin ? coefficient of uniformity Cu mean grain size D50(mm) D10(mm) D90(mm) Fc(%) internal friction angle F (degree) Cohesion C (kPa)
2.698 0.87 0.608 1.49 0.24 0.18 0.39 0 37 0
Tab.2  Firouzkuh #161 sand properties
Fig.3  Load-displacement curve of transverse loading test in 100 mm diameter PVA fiber-cement cylinder.
Fig.4  (a) Continuous tunnel placed in the fault simulator box; (b) soil surface of the model that is meshed by dyed sand.
Fig.5  The model installed in the centrifuge basket. (a) Side view; (b) front view.
Fig.6  Fault rupture propagation in free field model. (a) Before faulting; (b) after faulting.
Fig.7  Schematic view of the tunnel model affected by reverse faulting. (a) Before faulting; (b) after faulting.
Fig.8  Longitudinal view of damaged tunnel subjects to reverse faulting: (a) D= 100 mm; (b) D= 150 mm.
Fig.9  Monitoring of internal view at different stages of failure in test 1. (a) PGD in model= 2.3 mm, PGD in prototype= 0.14 m, a tiny crack is observed; (b) PGD in model= 11.9 mm, PGD in prototype= 0.71 m, the crack is opened, and some soil is poured into the tunnel; (c) PGD in model= 19.6 mm, PGD in prototype= 1.18 m, the crack expands, more soil pours and it blocks the tunnel.
Fig.10  Ground surface deformed through reverse faulting. (a) D= 100 mm; (b) D= 150 mm.
Fig.11  3D View of ground surface deformed through reverse faulting. (a) D= 100 mm; (b) D= 150 mm.
Fig.12  Vertical displacement contours of the ground surface. (a) D= 100 mm; (b) D= 150 mm.
Fig.13  Horizontal relative displacement contours of the ground surface. (a) D= 100 mm; (b) D= 150 mm.
Fig.14  Longitudinal profile of ground surface deformed shape in tunnels A and B.
Fig.15  Lateral profile of ground surface deformed shape at intersection with the sinkhole in tunnels A and B.
Fig.16  Lateral profile of ground surface deformed shape in tunnel A at different distances from the fault.
Fig.17  Fault rupture propagation in soil deposit surrounding the tunnel. (a) Tunnel diameter= 6 m; (b) tunnel diameter= 9 m.
Fig.18  Vertical displacement of ground surface adjacent to the plexiglass.
Fig.19  The gradual progress of damage state with an increase in PGD in test 3. (a) PGD= 0, damage state= 1, no damage; (b) PGD= 0.59 m, damage state= 2, a tiny crack is observed; (c) PGD= 0.70 m, damage state= 2, the crack is opened a little, and a soil discharge is low; (d) PGD= 0.96 m, damage state= 2, more soil is poured; (e) PGD= 1.35 m, damage state= 3, the crack expands and soil blocks the path; (f) PGD= 1.55 m, damage state= 3, the crack expands and more soil is poured; (g) PGD= 1.66 m, damage state= 4, more cracks begin to appear; (h) PGD= 2.15 m, damage state= 4, proportional more cracks; (i) PGD= 2.50 m, damage state= 4, complete tunnel collapse.
Fig.20  Fragility curves of tunnels at different damage states subject to reverse faulting.
Fig.21  Tunnel Slope (a) and damage state (b) variations with increases in PGD in tunnels of different diameters.
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