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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (5) : 1243-1250
Finite element analysis of controlled low strength materials
Gildart Haase School of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, NJ 07666, USA
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Controlled low strength materials (CLSM) are flowable and self-compacting construction materials that have been used in a wide variety of applications. This paper describes the numerical modeling of CLSM fills with finite element method under compression loading and the bond performance of CLSM and steel rebar under pullout loading. The study was conducted using a plastic-damage model which captures the material behavior using both classical theory of elasto-plasticity and continuum damage mechanics. The capability of the finite element approach for the analysis of CLSM fills was assessed by a comparison with the experimental results from a laboratory compression test on CLSM cylinders and pullout tests. The analysis shows that the behavior of a CLSM fill while subject to a failure compression load or pullout tension load can be simulated in a reasonably accurate manner.

Keywords CLSM      finite element method      compressive strength      pullout      numerical modeling      plastic damage model     
Corresponding Authors: Vahid ALIZADEH   
Just Accepted Date: 17 June 2019   Online First Date: 17 July 2019    Issue Date: 11 September 2019
 Cite this article:   
Vahid ALIZADEH. Finite element analysis of controlled low strength materials[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(5): 1243-1250.
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Fig.1  Compression test setup and failure modes of CLSM cylinders.
ingredients quantity (kg/m3)
cement 45
fly ash (type F) 258
sand 1516
water 303
Tab.1  Mixture proportion for the selected CLSM fill
Fig.2  Pullout test setup.
Fig.3  Illustration of (a) yield surface and (b) dilation angle and eccentricity.
strain softening damage
stress (kPa) inelastic strain damage d inelastic strain
134.31 0.005950 0.000000 0.005950
155.47 0.006990 0.000000 0.006990
185.89 0.008970 0.000000 0.008970
204.17 0.010900 0.099494 0.010900
206.06 0.011400 0.130905 0.011400
205.85 0.011485 0.138025 0.011485
201.67 0.011900 0.182610 0.011900
181.49 0.012700 0.301814 0.012700
155.47 0.014000 0.445489 0.014000
102.27 0.017100 0.677447 0.017100
16.90 0.017100 0.894194 0.017100
1.350 0.017060 0.932936 0.017060
Tab.2  Material parameters for the compression strain softening and damage evolution response of the CLSM
Fig.4  Conical damage (a) at compressive strength; (b) at failure with fixed end conditions; (c) experimental conical failure.
Fig.5  Shear damage (a) at compressive strength; (b) at failure with one unconstrained end; (c) at failure with capped end conditions; (d) experimental shear failure.
Fig.6  Comparison of experimental and numerical stress-strain response of the CLSM, and the effect of dilation angle y and mesh size on numerical results.
Fig.7  Finite element mesh of pullout test.
Fig.8  Traction-separation behavior for shear bond contact.
Fig.9  Damage in the CLSM fill due to the pullout tension load.
Fig.10  Comparison of the experimental measurement with numerical results of pullout tests for different bar sizes.
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