Please wait a minute...

Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (5) : 1183-1199     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-019-0545-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Deformation field and crack analyses of concrete using digital image correlation method
Yijie HUANG1(), Xujia HE1, Qing WANG1, Jianzhuang XIAO2
1. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Disaster Prevention and Mitigation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
2. Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Download: PDF(7951 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks
Abstract

The study on the deformation distribution and crack propagation of concrete under axial compression was conducted by the digital image correlation (DIC) method. The main parameter in this test is the water-cement (W/C) ratio. The novel analysis process and numerical program for DIC method were established. The displacements and strains of coarse aggregate, and cement mortar and interface transition zone (ITZ) were obtained and verified by experimental results. It was found that the axial displacement distributed non-uniformly during the loading stage, and the axial displacements of ITZs and cement mortar were larger than that of coarse aggregates before the occurrence of macro-cracks. The effect of W/C on the horizontal displacement was not obvious. Test results also showed that the transverse and shear deformation concentration areas (DCAs) were formed when stress reached 30%–40% of the peak stress. The transverse and shear DCAs crossed the cement mortar, and ITZs and coarse aggregates. However, the axial DCA mainly surrounded the coarse aggregate. Generally, the higher W/C was, the more size and number of DCAs were. The crack propagations of specimens varied with the variation of W/C. The micro-crack of concrete mainly initiated in the ITZs, irrespective of the W/C. The number and distribution range of cracks in concrete with high W/C were larger than those of cracks in specimen adopting low W/C. However, the value and width of cracks in high W/C specimen were relatively small. The W/C had an obvious effect on the characteristics of concrete deterioration. Finally, the characteristics of crack was also evaluated by comparing the calculated results.

Keywords deformation filed distribution      crack development      digital image correlation method      mechanical properties      water-cement ratio      characteristics of deformation and crack     
Corresponding Authors: Yijie HUANG   
Just Accepted Date: 13 June 2019   Online First Date: 24 July 2019    Issue Date: 11 September 2019
 Cite this article:   
Yijie HUANG,Xujia HE,Qing WANG, et al. Deformation field and crack analyses of concrete using digital image correlation method[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(5): 1183-1199.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-019-0545-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2019/V13/I5/1183
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Yijie HUANG
Xujia HE
Qing WANG
Jianzhuang XIAO
Fig.1  The sketch of DIC.
Fig.2  Data smoothing.
Fig.3  Analysis process.
item size (mm) apparent density (kg/m3) clay dosage crushing value
coarse aggregate 5–25 2580 1.1% 8.3%
fine aggregate 0.15–4.75 2612 2.94%
Tab.1  Properties of aggregates
specimen height (mm) width (mm) thickness (mm) W/C
SC1 100 100 15 0.4
SC2 100 100 15 0.5
SC3 100 100 15 0.6
Tab.2  The basic information of specimen
Fig.4  The illustration of specimen. (a) Initial state of specimen; (b) final state of specimen.
Fig.5  The loading and measurement system. (a) The field experimental system; (b) the sketch of measurement.
Fig.6  The experimental and calculated results. (a) Axial stress-strain curve; (b) the comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data.
Fig.7  The axial displacement of SC1-2 (unit: mm). (a) 10% of peak stress; (b) 30% of peak stress; (c) peak stress; (d) 55% of peak stress (post peak point); (e) the illustration of SC1-2.
Fig.8  The axial displacement of SC3-3 (unit: mm). (a) 20% of peak stress; (b) 70% of peak stress; (c) peak stress; (d) 75% of peak stress (post peak point); (e) the illustration of SC3-3.
Fig.9  The horizontal displacement of SC2-4 (unit: mm). (a) 65% of peak stress; (b) 90% of peak stress (post peak point).
Fig.10  The transverse strain development of SC3-3. (a) 20% of peak stress; (b) 40% of peak stress; (c) 95% of peak stress; (d) peak stress; (e) 90% of peak stress (post peak point); (f) 75% of peak stress (post peak point).
Fig.11  The comparison between transverse strain of SC1-2 and that of SC3-3. (a) SC1-2 (peak stress); (b) SC3-3 (peak stress).
Fig.12  The axial strain development of SC2-4. (a) 15% of peak stress; (b) 30% of peak stress; (c) 70% of peak stress; (d) 85% of peak stress; (e) peak stress; (f) 90% of peak stress (post peak point).
Fig.13  The comparison between axial strain of SC3-3 and that of SC2-4. (a) SC3-3 (peak stress); (b) SC2-4 (peak stress).
Fig.14  The shear strain development of SC3-3. (a) 20% of peak stress; (b) 95% of peak stress; (c) peak stress; (d) 75% of peak stress (post peak point).
Fig.15  The comparison between shear strain of SC1-2 and that of SC3-3. (a) SC1-2 (peak stress); (b) SC3-3 (peak stress).
Fig.16  The failure process of SC1-2. (a) 40% of peak stress; (b) peak stress; (c) 55% of peak stress (post peak point).
Fig.17  The failure process of SC3-3. (a) 40% of peak stress; (b) peak stress; (c) 75% of peak stress (post peak point).
fc peak stress of specimen
f (x,y) grayscale values of the subimage
f average grayscale values of subimage
R cross-correlation coefficient
u horizontal displacement
v axial displacement
εx transverse strain of the specimen
ey axial strain of the specimen
gxy shear strain of the specimen
  
1 J Z Xiao, J B Li, C Zhang. Mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete under uniaxial loading. Cement and Concrete Research, 2005, 35(6): 1187–1194
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.09.020
2 K. Komlos S ̆Popovics, T Nurnbergerova, B Babál, J S Popovics. Ultrasonic pulse velocity test of concrete properties as specified in various standards. Cement and Concrete Composites, 1996, 18(5): 357–364
https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-9465(96)00026-1
3 M Ohtsu, H Watanabe. Quantitative damage estimation of concrete by acoustic emission. Construction & Building Materials, 2001, 15(5–6): 217–224
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(00)00071-4
4 D R Morgan. Compatibility of concrete repair materials and systems. Construction & Building Materials, 1996, 10(1): 57–67
https://doi.org/10.1016/0950-0618(95)00060-7
5 I Atsushi, A Yoshimitsu, H Shuji. Accurate extraction and measurement of fine cracks from concrete block surface image. In: IEEE the 28th Annual Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society. Sevilla: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002, 2202–2207
6 J Vieira Filho, F G Baptista, D J Inman. Time-domain analysis of piezoelectric impedance-based structure health monitoring using multilevel wavelet decomposition. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2011, 25(5): 1550–1558
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.12.003
7 A Nanni, C Yang, K Pan. Fiber-optic sensors for concrete strain/stress measurement. ACI Materials Journal, 1991, 88(3): 255–265
8 M Bolhassani, A A Hamid, S Rajaram, P A Vanniamparambil, I Bartoli, A Kontsos. Failure analysis and damage detection of partially grouted masonry walls by enhancing deformation measurement using DIC. Engineering Structures, 2017, 134: 262–275
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2016.12.019
9 M A Sutton, J J Orteu, H W Schreier. Image Correlation For Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications. Boston: Springer, 2009
10 T C Chu, W F Ranson, M A Sutton. Applications of digital-image correlation techniques to experimental mechanics. Experimental Mechanics, 1985, 25(3): 232–244
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02325092
11 L W H Peters, W F Ranson. Digital imaging techniques in experimental stress analysis. Optical Engineering (Redondo Beach, Calif.), 1982, 21(3): 427–431
https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7972925
12 W Dong, Z M Wu, X M Zhou, L H Dong, G Kastiukas. FPZ evolution of mixed mode fracture in concrete: Experimental and numerical. Engineering Failure Analysis, 2017, 75: 54–70
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.01.017
13 W Dong, D Yang, X Zhou, G Kastiukas, B Zhang. Experimental and numerical investigations on fracture process zone of rock-concrete interface. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 2017, 40(5): 820–835
https://doi.org/10.1111/ffe.12558
14 B Doll, H Ozer, J J Rivera-Perez, I L Al-Qadi, J Lambros. Investigation of viscoelastic fracture fields in asphalt mixtures using digital image correlation. International Journal of Fracture, 2017, 205(1): 37–56
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10704-017-0180-8
15 J F Destrebecq, E Toussaint, E Ferrier. Analysis of cracks and deformations in a full scale reinforced concrete beam using a digital image correlation technique. Experimental Mechanics, 2011, 51(6): 879–890
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-010-9384-9
16 S H Tung, M C Weng, M H Shih. Measuring the in situ deformation of retaining walls by the digital image correlation method. Engineering Geology, 2013, 166: 116–126
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2013.09.008
17 S Choi, S P Shah. Measurement of deformations on concrete subjected to compression using image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 1997, 6(3): 307–313
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02317423
18 S G Shah, J M Chandra Kishen. Fracture properties of concrete-concrete interfaces using digital image correlation. Experimental Mechanics, 2011, 51(3): 303–313
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11340-010-9358-y
19 K Mao, M Jun, N Shinobu, Z Wu. Study of image analysis methods for measuring crack propagation in concrete. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2014, 70(2): 135–144
20 B Wu, C Liu, Y P Wu. Compressive behaviors of cylindrical concrete specimens made of demolished concrete blocks and fresh concrete. Construction & Building Materials, 2014, 53: 118–130
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.071
21 A A Hilal, N H Thom, A R Dawson. Failure mechanism of foamed concrete made with/without additives and lightweight aggregate. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 2016, 14(9): 511–520
22 W G Li, Z Sun, Z Luo, S P Shah. Influence of relative mechanical strength between new and old cement mortars on the crack propagation of recycled aggregate concrete. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 2017, 15(3): 110–125
https://doi.org/10.3151/jact.15.110
23 W Li, C Long, V W Y Tam, C S Poon, W H Duan. Effects of nano-particles on failure process and microstructural properties of recycled aggregate concrete. Construction & Building Materials, 2017, 142: 42–50
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.03.051
24 I Maruyama, H Sasano. Strain and crack distribution in concrete during drying. Materials and Structures, 2014, 47(3): 517–532
https://doi.org/10.1617/s11527-013-0076-7
25 S J Russell, P Norvig. 2nd ed. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003
26 H A Bruck, S R McNeill, M A Sutton, W H Peters III. Digital image correlation using Newton-Raphson method of partial differential correction. Experimental Mechanics, 1989, 29(3): 261–267
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02321405
27 M A Sutton, J L Turner, H A Bruck, T A Chae. Full field representation of discrete sampled surface deformation for displacement and strain analysis. Experimental Mechanics, 1991, 31(2): 168–177
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02327571
28 P Craven, G Wahba. Smoothing noisy data with spline functions. Numerische Mathematik, 1978, 31(4): 377–403
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01404567
29 X Pang, H M Xie. Full field strain measurement based on least square fitting of local displacement for digital image correlation method. Acta Optica Sinica, 2007, 27(11): 1980–1986 (in Chinese)
Related articles from Frontiers Journals
[1] Ali Hossein Nezhad SHIRAZI. Molecular dynamics investigation of mechanical properties of single-layer phagraphene[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(2): 495-503.
[2] Wenjuan SUN, Linbing WANG, Yaqiong WANG. Mechanical properties of rock materials with related to mineralogical characteristics and grain size through experimental investigation: a comprehensive review[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2017, 11(3): 322-328.
[3] Mahdi AREZOUMANDI, Mark EZZELL, Jeffery S VOLZ. A comparative study of the mechanical properties, fracture behavior, creep, and shrinkage of chemically based self-consolidating concrete[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2014, 8(1): 36-45.
[4] Faxing DING, Xiaoyong YING, Linchao ZHOU, Zhiwu YU. Unified calculation method and its application in determining the uniaxial mechanical properties of concrete[J]. Front Arch Civil Eng Chin, 2011, 5(3): 381-393.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed