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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (4) : 751-766
Experimental research on the multilayer compartmental particle damper and its application methods on long-period bridge structures
Zhenyuan LUO, Weiming YAN, Weibing XU(), Qinfei ZHENG, Baoshun WANG
Beijing Key Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Retrofit, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
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Particle damping technology has attracted extensive research and engineering application interest in the field of vibration control due to its prominent advantages, including wide working frequency bands, ease of installation, longer durability and insensitivity to extreme temperatures. To introduce particle damping technology to long-period structure seismic control, a novel multilayer compartmental particle damper (MCPD) was proposed, and a 1/20 scale test model of a typical long-period self-anchored suspension bridge with a single tower was designed and fabricated. The model was subjected to a series of shaking table tests with and without the MCPD. The results showed that the seismic responses of the flexible or semi-flexible bridge towers of long-period bridges influence the seismic responses of the main beam. The MCPD can be conveniently installed on the main beam and bridge tower and can effectively reduce the longitudinal peak displacement and the root mean square acceleration of the main beam and tower. In addition, no particle accumulation was observed during the tests. A well-designed MCPD can achieve significant damping for long-period structures under seismic excitations of different intensities. These results indicate that the application of MCPDs for seismic control of single-tower self-anchored suspension bridges and other long-period structures is viable.

Keywords energy dissipation devices      multilayer compartmental particle damper      self-anchored suspension bridges      shaking tables test      long-period structure      seismic control     
Corresponding Authors: Weibing XU   
Online First Date: 11 December 2018    Issue Date: 10 July 2019
 Cite this article:   
Zhenyuan LUO,Weiming YAN,Weibing XU, et al. Experimental research on the multilayer compartmental particle damper and its application methods on long-period bridge structures[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(4): 751-766.
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Zhenyuan LUO
Weiming YAN
Weibing XU
Qinfei ZHENG
Baoshun WANG
type physical quantity dimension similarity relation similarity coefficient
geometric dimensions size L [L] SL 0.05000
displacement δ [L] Sδ=SL 0.05000
material parameter elastic modulus E [FL2] SE 1.00000
stress σ [FL2] Sσ 1.00000
equivalent mass density ρe [FT2L4] Sρe 2.85000
dynamic index time T T ST=S LS ρe/ SE 0.11300
acceleration a [FL2] Sa=S E/(S LSρ e) 7.02000
frequency v T1 Sv=1/ST 8.89000
stiffness k [FL1] SK=S ESL 0.05000
mass m [FL1] Sm= SρeSL3 0.00084
Tab.1  Similarity relation of the bridge model
Fig.1  The bridge model (1/20-scale model in mm). (a) Details of bridge model; (b) pot bearing; (c) the main cables and boom; (d) integral layout of the actual bridge model
Fig.2  Schematic diagram of the MCPD
structure cavity size1 (m) layers damping particle parameters2
L D H N d (mm) material Rm
main beam 1.2 0.8 0.4 4 12 steel ball 2%
bridge tower 1.0 0.6 0.4 4 12 steel ball
Tab.2  The design parameters of the MCPDs
Fig.3  Layout of the particle dampers. (a) Main beam; (b) bridge tower
table size of shaking table 1 m × 1 m
number of shaking table 8
maximum displacement ±7.5 cm
carrying capacity 5 t/ (single shaking table)
maximum speed 60 cm/s
frequency range 0.1 Hz?50 Hz
maximum acceleration 1.5g (the full load)
control mode acceleration control
vibration wave sine wave, random wave and seismic wave
Tab.3  Performance parameters of earthquake simulation shaking table
Fig.4  Layout of the shaking table (in cm)
Fig.5  Layout of the sensors
case number earthquake wave A (g) Rm (%) input direction
#1–#9 EL-Centro 0.25, 0.71, 1.52 2, 3, 4, 5 X
#10–#18 ILA005 0.25, 0.71, 1.52 2, 3, 4, 5 X
#19–#27 Arti 0.25, 0.71, 1.52 2, 3, 4, 5 X
Tab.4  Shaking table test cases
Fig.6  Acceleration time series of (a) the EL-Centro wave, (b) the ILA005 wave, (c) the artificial wave; corresponding Fourier amplitude spectrum of (d) the EL-Centro wave, (e) the ILA005 wave, (f) the artificial wave (EA2= 0.1g)
parameters Rm(%)
ω μ ω μ ω μ ω μ ω μ
main beam 1.93 1.72 1.88 3.27 1.85 4.43 1.82 6.09 1.78 6.24
bridge tower 4.96 1.85 4.82 3.46 4.73 4.39 4.66 5.96 4.57 6.13
Tab.5  The natural vibration characteristics of the bridge model
Fig.7  Identified frequencies and vibration modes of the bridge model. (a) singular value decomposition values of the power spectral density matrix of the accelerometer records; (b) the first two vibration modes of the bridge model
Fig.8  The comparison to response of acceleration and displacement of the main beam with and without dampers under EA2 excitation. (a) EL-Centro wave; (b) ILA005 wave; (c) artificial wave
Fig.9  The comparison to response of acceleration and displacement of the bridge tower with and without dampers under EA2 excitation. (a) EL-Centro wave; (b) ILA005 wave; (c) artificial wave
Fig.10  Seismic response reduction effect of MCPD with different additional mass ratio under EA1?EA3 excitation. (a) The main beam of test model; (b) the bridge tower of the test model
Fig.11  Decreasing ratio of acceleration response time history curves of MCPD under different excitation density. (a) The main beam of test model; (b) the bridge tower of the test model
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