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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front. Struct. Civ. Eng.    2019, Vol. 13 Issue (3) : 701-715
Evaluation of seismic reliability of gravity dam-reservoir-inhomogeneous foundation coupled system
Hamid Taghavi GANJI1, Mohammad ALEMBAGHERI2(), Mohammad Houshmand KHANEGHAHI3
1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3. Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
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The seismic performance of gravity dam-reservoir-foundation coupled system is investigated utilizing probabilistic approach. In this research, the uncertainties associated with modeling parameters are incorporated in nonlinear response history simulations to realistically quantify their effects on the seismic performance of the system. The methodology is applied to Pine Flat gravity dam and the foundation is considered to be inhomogeneous assuming a constant spatial geometry but with various rock material properties. The sources of uncertainty are taken into account in the reliability analysis using Latin Hypercube Sampling procedure. The effects of the deconvolution process, number of samples, and foundation inhomogeneity are investigated.

Keywords gravity dams      dam-reservoir-foundation interaction      seismic reliability      inhomogeneous foundation      earthquake deconvolution     
Corresponding Authors: Mohammad ALEMBAGHERI   
Just Accepted Date: 27 July 2018   Online First Date: 06 September 2018    Issue Date: 05 June 2019
 Cite this article:   
Hamid Taghavi GANJI,Mohammad ALEMBAGHERI,Mohammad Houshmand KHANEGHAHI. Evaluation of seismic reliability of gravity dam-reservoir-inhomogeneous foundation coupled system[J]. Front. Struct. Civ. Eng., 2019, 13(3): 701-715.
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Hamid Taghavi GANJI
Mohammad Houshmand KHANEGHAHI
Fig.1  The general framework of the analysis implemented in this research
Fig.2  The algorithm of utilized methodology
Fig.3  Schematic representation of the deconvolution process
Fig.4  (a) Pine Flat dam with full reservoir and illustrative inhomogeneous foundation; (b) finite element mesh of the dam-reservoir-inhomogeneous foundation system
Fig.5  Response spectra of the selected earthquake ground motions
domain random variable unit distribution function mean coefficient of variation
dam density, rc kg/m3 lognormal 2400 0.1
elastic modulus, Ec GPa lognormal 30 0.2
rock region 1 density, rr1 kg/m3 lognormal 2600 0.1
elastic modulus ratio, α1 = Er1/Ec ? uniform 0.875 0.4
rock region 2 density, rr2 kg/m3 lognormal 2600 0.1
elastic modulus ratio, α2 = Er2/Ec ? uniform 0.875 0.4
rock region 3 density, rr3 kg/m3 lognormal 2600 0.1
elastic modulus ratio, α3 = Er3/Ec ? uniform 0.875 0.4
base joint fiction coefficient, m ? normal 1 0.2
Tab.1  Selected random variables, the related domains, and parameters shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig.6  Histograms of seismic analysis output for the three sets of samples under different ground excitations. (a) Maximum tensile stress; (b) base joint opening; (c) base joint sliding. The results of 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-sample sets are shown in red, brown, and light brown, respectively. The distribution fit in each plot belongs to the 1000-sample set
seismic output ground motion distribution 1000-sample 2000-sample 4000-sample
mean STDEV mean STDEV mean STDEV
tensile stress (MPa) OBE lognormal 0.197 0.232 0.204 0.221 0.197 0.217
MDE lognormal 0.733 0.276 0.739 0.266 0.734 0.263
MCE beta 4.787 1.149 4.808 1.152 4.802 1.132
base joint opening (cm) OBE normal 0.349 0.204 0.349 0.201 0.349 0.198
MDE beta 0.820 0.346 0.818 0.333 0.820 0.334
MCE logistic 2.032 0.316 2.020 0.306 2.001 0.330
base joint sliding (cm) OBE lognormal 0.261 0.676 0.288 0.701 0.284 0.702
MDE lognormal 1.130 0.850 1.139 0.861 1.140 0.868
MCE lognormal 2.674 0.710 2.683 0.718 2.648 0.787
Tab.2  Mean and standard deviation of distribution fits on the output histograms
Fig.7  EP curves of the three sets of samples under increasing ground excitation intensities for (a) overstressing, (b) base joint opening, and (c) base joint sliding performance functions
Fig.8  Effects of the earthquake deconvolution process on the EP curves for (a) overstressing, (b) base joint opening, and (c) base joint sliding performance functions. deconv.: Deconvolution
Fig.9  Comparison of the earthquake deconvolution curves of the 1000-sample set under the MDE with and without deconvolution: (a) Overstressing, (b) base joint opening, and (c) base joint sliding performance functions. deconv.: Deconvolution
seismic output ground motion distribution homogeneous inhomogeneous
mean STDEV CoV CoV
tensile stress (MPa) MDE beta 0.624 0.351 0.56 0.38
base joint opening (cm) MDE normal 0.767 0.412 0.53 0.40
base joint sliding (cm) MDE lognormal 1.021 0.927 0.91 0.75
Tab.3  Mean and standard deviation of distribution fits with the assumption of homogeneous foundation for the 1000-sample set under the MDE
Fig.10  EP curves under the MDE assuming homogeneous and inhomogeneous rock foundation for the 1000-sample set. (a) Overstressing; (b) base joint opening; (c) base joint sliding
Fig.11  Comparison of the EP curves obtained from the FOSM and LHS methods under increasing earthquake intensities: (a) Overstressing, (b) base joint opening, and (c) base joint sliding
Fig.12  Contours of EP for overstressing performance function under the MDE ground motion considering different threshold values (concrete tensile strength). The first and second rows show the results excluding and including the earthquake deconvolution process, respectively
random variable tensile overstressing base joint opening base joint sliding
rc −0.042 0.037 −0.146 −0.004 −0.006 0.004 0.017 −0.025 −0.034
Ec 0.167 −0.007 −0.474 0.038 0.191 0.305 0.031 −0.084 0.113
µ 0.001 −0.085 0.020 0.022 0.040 0.056 0.006 −0.014 0.042
rr1 0.082 −0.005 −0.357 0.047 0.053 0.022 0.046 0.015 0.249
rr2 0.020 −0.013 −0.052 0.028 0.008 −0.008 0.018 −0.001 −0.106
rr3 0.156 0.082 −0.377 −0.182 −0.108 −0.073 −0.221 −0.198 0.267
α1 0.138 0.012 −0.358 0.017 0.047 0.006 0.109 0.068 0.277
α2 0.206 −0.146 0.015 0.091 0.071 −0.003 0.043 0.085 0.176
α3 0.262 0.292 0.019 −0.346 −0.343 −0.346 −0.341 −0.343 −0.129
Tab.4  Importance measure of random variables from the FOSM method including the deconvolution process
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