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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front Struc Civil Eng    2013, Vol. 7 Issue (2) : 89-101     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-013-0197-7
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
A study on quality evaluation for bituminous mixture using X-ray CT
Satoshi TANIGUCHI1(), Keiichiro OGAWA2, Jun OTANI2, Itaru NISHIZAKI1
1. Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba 305-8516, Japan; 2. School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan
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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to propose a new quality evaluation method for asphalt concrete mixture using X-ray CT scanner. To achieve this aim, asphalt mixtures should be subjected to the X-ray CT scanning and its characteristics should be clarified. The approach employed in this study was as follows: 1) Coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, filler and bitumen were prepared; 2) dense-graded, coarse-graded and porous asphalt mixtures were made; 3) materials and mixtures were subjected to the X-ray CT scanning; 4) frequency of CT-value, threshold value, average slice CT-value, average segment CT-value were computed. In the material examination, CT-value of aggregate becomes smaller in the order of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler and CT image of bitumen was nearly homogeneous. In the mixture examination, histograms of CT-value and four segmentation images made from CT images expressed the material and mixture characterization such as particle size and the difference in bitumen content and mixture type visibly and the bitumen content varies with the threshold values. In addition, the average segment CT-value without threshold value by dividing the fine aggregate from the coarse aggregate and average CT-value of the coarse aggregate, especially is highly correlated with average CT-value of the bitumen.

Keywords asphalt concrete mixture      aggregate      bitumen      bitumen content      quality evaluation      X-ray CT     
Corresponding Authors: TANIGUCHI Satoshi,Email:taniguti@pwri.go.jp   
Issue Date: 05 June 2013
 Cite this article:   
Satoshi TANIGUCHI,Keiichiro OGAWA,Jun OTANI, et al. A study on quality evaluation for bituminous mixture using X-ray CT[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2013, 7(2): 89-101.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-013-0197-7
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2013/V7/I2/89
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Satoshi TANIGUCHI
Keiichiro OGAWA
Jun OTANI
Itaru NISHIZAKI
Fig.1  System of industrial X-ray CT
Fig.2  Concept of voxel
Fig.3  Aggregate or filler size and voxel size. (a) Coarse aggregate; (b) fine aggregate; (c) filler
scan typetransverse and rotation
X-ray beam voltage300 kV
X-ray beam typefan beam
beam thickness1.0, 2.0 mm
irradiating area?150 mm
voxel number2048 × 2048
dimension of one voxel0.073 × 0.073 × 1.0 or 2.0 mm3
Tab.1  Specification of X-ray CT scanner
Fig.4  CT-value distribution of typical asphalt mixture
straight asphaltPMA IIPMA H
density at 15°C (g/cm3)1.0411.0291.024
penetration at 25°C (0.1 mm)656666
softening point (°C)47.687.489.2
viscosity at 60°C (Pa·s)1.94 × 1024.13 × 1041.42 × 105
kinematic viscosity at 180°C (mm2/s)71257542
Tab.2  physical properties of bituminous binder
mixture typecoarse aggregatefine aggregatefillerstraight asphalt
density/(g·cm-3)2.6922.6862.7701.041
Tab.3  Density of materials
Fig.5  Specimens of materials. (a) Coarse aggregate; (b) fine aggregate; (c) filler; (d) straight asphalt
mixturebinderbinder content
typetype4.5%5.0%5.5%6.0%6.5%
dense-gradedstraight12345
PMA II6
coarse-gradedstraight7
porousporous8
Tab.4  Experimental design table of asphalt mixture
mixture typecoarse aggregatefine aggregatefiller
dense-graded56.5%38.5%5.0%
coarse-graded72.0%23.0%5.0%
porous84.0%11.0%5.0%
Tab.5  Percentage mass of aggregate
No.coarse aggregatefine aggregatefillerbitumenvoid
147.2%32.2%4.0%10.1%6.5%
247.0%32.1%4.0%11.3%5.6%
347.2%32.2%4.0%12.6%4.0%
447.1%32.3%4.1%13.9%3.6%
547.0%32.1%4.1%14.9%1.9%
647.1%32.2%4.0%11.6%5.1%
760.5%19.3%4.0%11.4%4.8%
860.3%7.7%3.4%9.8%18.8%
Tab.6  Volume ratio of asphalt mixture
No.12345678
density/(g·cm-3)2.3492.3602.3882.3932.3982.3662.3812.024
Tab.7  Density of specimen
Fig.6  Combined grading of asphalt mixture specimens
Fig.7  Irradiation positions. (a) Material; (b) dense and coarse-graded asphalt mixture; (c) porous asphalt mixture
Fig.8  CT images of materials. (a) Coarse aggregate; (b) fine aggregate; (c) filler; (d) straight asphalt
Fig.9  CT-value histogram of coarse aggregate
Fig.10  CT-value histogram of fine aggregate
Fig.11  CT-value histogram of filler
Fig.12  CT-value histogram of bitumen
Fig.13  shows the CT images of the asphalt mixture. (a) Different bitumen content (first scanning); (b) different bitumen and mixture type (second scanning) (Notes: = bitumen content; St. as.: straight asphalt)
Fig.14  Histogram of the CT-value of the specimen from No. 1 to 5
Fig.15  Histogram and threshold value of specimen No. 3
Fig.16  shows the relation between bitumen content and three threshold values.
Fig.17  Four-segmentation images of specimen from No. 1 to No. 5
Fig.18  Relation between average slice CT-value and density
Fig.19  Relation between average CT-value of four segments
Fig.20  Histogram of the CT-value of specimen No. 2 and 6
Fig.21  Threshold values of specimen No. 2 and 6
Fig.22  Four-segmentation images of specimen No. 2 and 6
Fig.23  Histogram of the CT-value of specimen No. 2, 7 and 8
Fig.24  Threshold values of specimen No. 2, 7 and 8
Fig.25  Four-segmentation images of specimen No. 2, 7 and 8
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