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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front Struc Civil Eng    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (1) : 1-18     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-012-0141-2
REVIEW |
Modeling of alkali-silica reaction in concrete: a review
J.W. PAN1,2, Y.T. FENG2(), J.T. WANG1, Q.C. SUN1, C.H. ZHANG1, D.R.J. OWEN2
1. State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; 2. Civil and Computational Engineering Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK
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Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive review of modeling of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete. Such modeling is essential for investigating the chemical expansion mechanism and the subsequent influence on the mechanical aspects of the material. The concept of ASR and the mechanism of expansion are first outlined, and the state-of-the-art of modeling for ASR, the focus of the paper, is then presented in detail. The modeling includes theoretical approaches, meso- and macroscopic models for ASR analysis. The theoretical approaches dealt with the chemical reaction mechanism and were used for predicting pessimum size of aggregate. Mesoscopic models have attempted to explain the mechanism of mechanical deterioration of ASR-affected concrete at material scale. The macroscopic models, chemo-mechanical coupling models, have been generally developed by combining the chemical reaction kinetics with linear or nonlinear mechanical constitutive, and were applied to reproduce and predict the long-term behavior of structures suffering from ASR. Finally, a conclusion and discussion of the modeling are given.

Keywords alkali-silica reaction (ASR)      modeling      concrete      mesoscopic      macroscopic     
Corresponding Authors: FENG Y.T.,Email:y.feng@swansea.ac.uk   
Issue Date: 05 March 2012
 Cite this article:   
J.W. PAN,Y.T. FENG,J.T. WANG, et al. Modeling of alkali-silica reaction in concrete: a review[J]. Front Struc Civil Eng, 2012, 6(1): 1-18.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-012-0141-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2012/V6/I1/1
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J.W. PAN
Y.T. FENG
J.T. WANG
Q.C. SUN
C.H. ZHANG
D.R.J. OWEN
Fig.1  Alkali-silica reaction process []
Fig.2  Three conditions of ASR []
Fig.3  Crack patterns in concrete due to ASR
Fig.4  Idealized cubical cell with one spherical particle of original diameter (the zone marked gray is the remaining unreacted particle; is the thickness of layer with capillary pores and cracks surrounding the particle) []
Fig.5  (Left) Idealized cubic array of expanding spherical glass particles surrounded by flaws and dominant growing cracks filled by pressurized ASR gel; (right top) one cell with glass particle and crack; (right bottom) Layer of reacted glass (ASR gel layer growing into glass particle) and layer of ASR gel forced into capillary pores of concrete []
Fig.6  (Top) idealized evolution of crack front from initial stage of shallow annular cracks around glass particle to terminal stage of small circular uncracked ligaments; (bottom) superposition argument revealing equivalence of crack pressurization and stress externally applied on one cell []
Fig.7  The aggregate skeleton generated in the mesoscopic model []
Fig.8  Swelling of the aggregate versus time []
Fig.9  Illustration of gel pocket geometry update when expanding []
Fig.10  The loss of stiffness versus the reaction. Grey shade was the experimental data []
Fig.11  Distribution of tension and compression zones. Tension in the location of ASR gel pockets and compression in the paste []
Fig.12  (Left) finite element mesh; (right) microstructural image of concrete specimen []
Fig.13  Expansion strain rate in terms of compression stress
Fig.14  Distribution of vertical displacement after 25 years of ASR []
Fig.15  Mesoscopic mechanism of ASR swelling and chemoelastic pressure-spring device []
Fig.16  The normalized isothermal expansion curve []
Fig.17  Cracking pattern due to ASR in the dam []
Fig.18  Illustration of components and volume fractions of concrete mixture. denotes volume fraction, the superscript , , , and correspond to the skeleton, pore gas, pore liquid, unreacted material and reacted material, respectively [.
Fig.19  One-dimensional idealized view of rheological model []
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