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Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering

Front Arch Civil Eng Chin    2009, Vol. 3 Issue (2) : 117-124     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11709-009-0024-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE |
Seismic performance of prestressed concrete stand structure supporting retractable steel roof
Yiyi CHEN(), Dazhao ZHANG, Weichen XUE, Wensheng LU
State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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Abstract

The seismic behavior of a structural system composed of pre-stressed concrete stand supporting a retractable steel roof was studied, which is typically based on the prototype of engineering project of Shanghai Qizhong Tennis Center. By elasto-plastic finite element analysis and shaking table test, the following were investigated: the effects of roof configurations in opening and closing, the effect of pre-stress on the structural seismic response, and the failure mechanism of the spatial stand frame systems featured with circularly arranged columns and inverse-cone type stands. It was found that the roof status has great effect on the natural period, vibration modes, and seismic response of the whole structure, the stand response to horizontal seismic excitation is stronger in roof opening configuration than in closing state, and the response mode is dominantly translational rather than rotational, though the stand is characterized by its fundamentally torsional vibration mode. The study indicated that the pre-stressed inverse-cone stands can keep the system from global side-sway collapse under gravity loads, even in the case that most columns loose moment capacity.

Keywords retractable steel roof      prestressed concrete      seismic performance      failure mode      inelastic response      shaking table test     
Corresponding Authors: CHEN Yiyi,Email:yiyichen@mail.tongji.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 June 2009
 Cite this article:   
Yiyi CHEN,Dazhao ZHANG,Weichen XUE, et al. Seismic performance of prestressed concrete stand structure supporting retractable steel roof[J]. Front Arch Civil Eng Chin, 2009, 3(2): 117-124.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/10.1007/s11709-009-0024-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fsce/EN/Y2009/V3/I2/117
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Yiyi CHEN
Dazhao ZHANG
Weichen XUE
Wensheng LU
Fig.1  Assemblage of structure. (a) Closing configuration; (b) opening configuration
Fig.2  Sketch diagram for prestressed system and data picking points
No.itemdescription
1concreteC55, plastic hinge generated automatically using constituent equationstop prestressed circular beams PL3, with effective tensioning force of 21092.4 kN
2prestressmiddle prestressed circular beams PL4, with effective tensioning force of 7030.8 kNradial prestressed beams XL2, with effective tensioning force of 2065.3 kN
3plastic hingeuncoupled plastic hinge model of axial force and moment [5] with hysteretic model of Takeda
4massdirect mass plus 0.5 times equivalent mass of live load
5damping ratiomodal damping based on hybrid system taken 0.0308 [6]
6loadingdead load (DL), live load (LL) and prestressed load (PRE)
7excitationsunidirectional horizontal earthquake SHW2, bidirectional horizontal earthquake El Centro
Tab.1  Key information of modeling
analysis typesclosingopening
modalnonprestressedModalModal
prestressedModal_PREModal_PRE
transientminor of intensity VIIS35, E35S35, E35
medium of intensity VIIS100, E100S100, E100
major of intensity VIIS220, E220S220, E220
Tab.2  Main analysis cases
+Y+X-Y-X
columns in outer ringWKZ+YWKZ+XWKZ-YWKZ-X
circular beamsPL3+YPL3+XPL3-YPL3-X
steel circular beamsCB+YCB+XCB-YCB-X
Tab.3  Symbols for data picking points
modesclosingopening
periods/sdescriptionperiods/sdescription
10.864overall torsion0.886overall torsion
20.667vertical vibration of roof0.598vertical vibration of roof
30.573X direction0.598local vibration
40.573Y direction0.592Y direction
50.492local vibration0.592Y direction
60.492local vibration0.529local vibration
Tab.4  Natural vibration characteristics of the structure
Fig.3  Deformation of roof at certain instant. (a) SHW2 from directional; (b) El Centro from both and direction
Fig.4  Time history curve of direction displacements of WK under case of E220. (a) Numerical results; (b) test results
Fig.5  Effect of roof status on plastic displacement
Fig.6  Hinge distribution after major earthquake. (a) Case E220 after quake in closing state; (b) case E220 after quake in opening state
Fig.7  Failure image of the test model
123
closing

Time history curve for tendon axial force

opening
Tab.5  Comparison of occurrence of plastic hinges
columns closingopening
UKZ-298-298
VKZ-333-343
WKZ955877
Tab.6  Columns’ axial forces caused by tensioning /kN
modesclosingopening
ModalModal_PREModalModal_PRE
10.8640.7300.8860.886
20.6670.6670.5980.598
30.5740.6110.5980.598
40.5740.5050.5920.592
50.4920.4950.5920.592
60.4920.4500.5300.530
Tab.7  Effect of prestressing on natural characteristics
closingopening
PL3PL4XL2PL3PL4XL2
E3511.77. 31.39.97.71.4
S350.20.20.01.90. 40.0
E1004.025.94.539.821.15.0
S1001.40.90.013.22.50.1
Tab.8  Numerical variation of axial force of tendons /kN
PL3PL4XL2
E356810
S357811
E100121514
S100111713
Tab.9  Field measurement of tendon’s strain variation in shake table test /μ?
Fig.8  
Fig.9  Crack closing effect caused by prestressing
closingopening
S220E220S220E220
UXUYUXUYUXUYUXUY
WKZ+Y52.839.142.941.939.242.9
+X48.737.942.241.637.942.2
-Y53.039.234.842.239.234.9
-X46.234.943.938.334.943.9
PL3+Y54.440.742.343.140.042.3
+X50.441.443.140.941.343.1
-Y54.440.247.443.339.947.5
-X60.844.945.349.544.945.3
CB+Y63.145.261.249.845.261.2
+X76.249.149.956.049.149.9
-Y62.944.859.449.844.759.3
-X71.050.753.157.450.753.1
Tab.10  Maximum displacements under rarely occurred earthquake in intensity VII by numerical analysis /mm
WKZPL3CB
UX757170
UY988083
Tab.11  Extrapolated peak displacement of prototype under rarely occurred earthquake in intensity VII /mm
Fig.10  Schematic model for structure failure mechanism. (a) Temporary system; (b) mechanism
1 Su Xiaozu. Seismic Performance Research on Prestressed Concrete Frames. Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1997 (in Chinese)
2 Lu Zhitao, Xue Weichen. Seismic performance research on prestressed concrete portal and bent frame structures. China Civil Engineering Journal , 1996, 29(5): 57-62 (in Chinese)
3 Mo Y L, Hwang W L. The effect of prestress losses on the seismic response of prestressed concrete frames. Computers and Structures , 1996, 59(6): 1013-1020
doi: 10.1016/0045-7949(95)00348-7
4 Chen Yiyi, Zhang Dazhao, Xue Weichen, Lu Wensheng, Lin Yinru. Shaking table model test for circular spatial and prestressed structure. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration , 2006, 26(6): 158-163 (in Chinese)
5 Wilson E L. Three Dimensional Static and Dynamic Analyses of Structures. Berkeley: Computers and Structures, Inc., 2000
6 Cao Zi, Xue Suduo. Seismic Theory and Design for Spatial Strucutures. Beijing: Science Press, 2005 (in Chinese)
7 National Standard of the People’s Republic of China. GB50011-2001 Code for Seismic Design of Buildings. Beijing: China Architecture and Building Press, 2001 (in Chinese)
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