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Frontiers of Materials Science

Front Mater Sci    2012, Vol. 6 Issue (1) : 26-46     DOI: 10.1007/s11706-012-0160-x
Carbon nanomaterials: controlled growth and field-effect transistor biosensors
Xiao-Na WANG1,2, Ping-An HU1,2()
1. Key Laboratory of Micro-systems and Micro-structures Manufacturing (Ministry of Education), Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China; 2. Micro/Nano Technology Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
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Carbon nanostructures, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, have been studied extensively due to their special structures, excellent electrical properties and high chemical stability. With the development of nanotechnology and nanoscience, various methods have been developed to synthesize CNTs/graphene and to assemble them into microelectronic/sensor devices. In this review, we mainly demonstrate the latest progress in synthesis of CNTs and graphene and their applications in field-effect transistors (FETs) for biological sensors.

Keywords carbon nanotube (CNT)      graphene      preparation      field-effect transistor (FET)      biosensor     
Corresponding Authors: HU Ping-An,   
Issue Date: 05 March 2012
 Cite this article:   
Xiao-Na WANG,Ping-An HU. Carbon nanomaterials: controlled growth and field-effect transistor biosensors[J]. Front Mater Sci, 2012, 6(1): 26-46.
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Fig.1  Statistics of papers published year by year relevant to CNT and graphene. Data analysis is based on Web of Knowledge as of December 2011.
Fig.2  Current–voltage characteristics of a CN/C nanotube measured at room temperature showing rectifying behavior. Inset: contacting-mode atomic force microscope image of an example of a nanotube junction device with Pt contacts. Individual C/CN nanotube. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics)
Fig.3  Arrays of almost exclusively semiconducting SWNTs. SEM images. The bright and parallel horizontal lines visible in the images are catalyst lines. AFM image. Diameter distribution of 200 SWNTs of an array measured by AFM. Raman spectra of SWNTs transferred onto the SiO/Si substrates. The spectra were obtained using 488 and 633 nm excitation laser lines at 10 different spots over the substrate for each laser line. Each curve in a panel shows a spectrum at a spot on the substrate. Peaks within the rectangles marked with S correspond to the semiconducting SWNTs. The rectangles marked with M denote the frequency range where RBM peaks of metallic SWNTs are expected. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society)
Fig.4  SEM image of SWNT arrays grown across microtrenches. A suspended SWNT crossing over a microtrench, the two ends of this SWNT “rope bridge” are shown in and , respectively. Raman spectrum measured from the center part of the suspended SWNT. SEM images of SWNTs grown over micro-obstacles. Schematic drawing of the growth mechanism. The front section of a growing SWNT floats in low rate gas flow relying on the buoyant effect induced by gas density/temperature gradient (shown as the gradual change of background color) and shear flow near the substrate surface. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society)
Fig.5  Schematic drawing of SWNT-FET biosensors.
Fig.6  Aromatic nucleotide bases in the ssDNA are exposed to form π-stacking with the sidewall of the SWNT. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2003 Nature Publishing Group) Electronic measurements such as source-drain conductance () as function of gate voltage (), and schematic drawings of the NTNFET devices used for DNA assays: Before (bare NT) and after incubation with 12-mer oligonucleotide capture probes (5′-CCT AAT AAC AAT-3′), as well as after incubation with the complementary FITC-labeled DNA targets; Before and after incubation with dA captures as well as after incubation with the DNA targets. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2006 The National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)
Fig.7  Scheme of the self-assembly procedure for SWNT-FET fabrication. SEM images of FET chip; magnified images show SWNTs selectively deposited between electrodes, contacting source and drain. Note that the electrode surface is shown to be clean. Real time analysis: time dependence of at = 0.2 V and at = -5 V upon the introduction of target streptavidin (50 nmol/L) onto the biotinylated device. Adding the target streptavidin causes a sharp increase in the source-drain current and then a gradual saturation at slightly lower values. No effect is observed upon the addition of IgG. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2008 American Institute of Physics)
Fig.8  Graphene and its relation to fullerene, CNT and graphite. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2007 Nature Publishing Group)
Fig.9  Model for as-prepared graphite oxide. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 1998 Elsevier) Photographs of 15 mg of graphite oxide paper in a glass vial (I) and the resultant hydrazinium graphene (HG) dispersion after addition of hydrazine (II). Below each vial is a three-dimensional computer-generated molecular model of graphite oxide (carbon in grey, oxygen in red and hydrogen in white) and chemically converted graphene, respectively, suggesting that removal of –OH and –COOH functionalities upon reduction restores a planar structure. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2009 Nature Publishing Group)
Fig.10  Optical images of patterned rGO films: striped shape; square shape. SEM image of the array of rGO TFT. Insert in (c) shows SEM image of a magnified device. Adsorption and desorption of NH on the rGO sensor. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2011 Royal Society of Chemistry)
Fig.11  SEM image of graphene on a copper foil with a growth time of 30 min. High-resolution SEM image showing a Cu grain boundary and steps, two- and three-layer graphene flakes, and graphene wrinkles. Inset in (b) shows TEM images of folded graphene edges. 1L, one layer; 2L, two layers. Graphene films transferred onto a SiO/Si substrate and a glass plate, respectively. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2009 the American Association for the Advancement of Science) Graphene grown on the patterned seeds with the growth time of 5 min and 15 min. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2011 Nature Publishing Group)
Fig.12  Schematic diagram of the oxygen-aided CVD growth of graphene on a SiO/Si substrate. Initial surface of the SiO/Si substrate, characterized by a uniform flat surface. AFM height image of graphene sheets with a thickness of ~0.659 nm. AFM phase image of graphene sheets. AFM image of two-dimensional interconnected graphene networks. AFM image of continuous graphene films. Photograph of a graphene film on SiO/Si substrate. The edge was removed using adhesive tape. (Reproduced with permission from Ref. [], Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society)
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