Frontiers of Optoelectronics

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Generation and detection of pulsed terahertz waves in gas: from elongated plasmas to microplasmas
Fabrizio BUCCHERI, Pingjie HUANG, Xi-Cheng ZHANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 209-244.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0819-8
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The past two decades have seen an exponential growth of interest in one of the least explored region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the terahertz (THz) frequency band, ranging from to 0.1 to 10 THz. Once only the realm of astrophysicists studying the background radiation of the universe, THz waves have become little by little relevant in the most diverse fields, such as medical imaging, industrial inspection, remote sensing, fundamental science, and so on. Remarkably, THz wave radiation can be generated and detected by using ambient air as the source and the sensor. This is accomplished by creating plasma under the illumination of intense femtosecond laser fields. The integration of such a plasma source and sensor in THz time-domain techniques allows spectral measurements covering the whole THz gap (0.1 to 10 THz), further increasing the impact of this scientific tool in the study of the four states of matter.

In this review, the authors introduce a new paradigm for implementing THz plasma techniques. Specifically, we replaced the use of elongated plasmas, ranging from few mm to several cm, with sub-mm plasmas, which will be referred to as microplasmas, obtained by focusing ultrafast laser pulses with high numerical aperture optics (NA from 0.1 to 0.9).

The experimental study of the THz emission and detection from laser-induced plasmas of submillimeter size are presented. Regarding the microplasma source, one of the interesting phenomena is that the main direction of THz wave emission is almost orthogonal to the laser propagation direction, unlike that of elongated plasmas. Perhaps the most important achievement is the demonstration that laser pulse energies lower than 1 mJ are sufficient to generate measurable THz pulses from ambient air, thus reducing the required laser energy requirement of two orders of magnitude compared to the state of art. This significant decrease in the required laser energy will make plasma-based THz techniques more accessible to the scientific community, as well as opening new potential industrial applications.

Finally, experimental observations of THz radiation detection with microplasmas are also presented. As fully coherent detection was not achieved in this work, the results presented herein are to be considered a first step to understand the peculiarities involved in using the microplasma as a THz sensor.

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De-noising research on terahertz holographic reconstructed image based on weighted nuclear norm minimization method
Wenshu MA, Qi LI, Jianye LU, Liyu SUN
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 267-274.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0829-6
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Terahertz imaging is one of the forefront topics of imaging technology today. Denoising process is the key for improving the resolution of the terahertz holographic reconstructed image. Based on the fact that the weighted nuclear norm minimization (WNNM) method preserves the details of the reconstructed image well and the non-local mean (NLM) algorithm performs better in the removal of background noise, this paper proposes a new method in which the NLM algorithm is used to improve the WNNM method. The experimental observation and quantitative analysis of the denoising results prove that the new method has better denoising effect for the terahertz holographic reconstructed image.

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Identifying PM2.5 samples collected in different environment by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy
Chenghong WU, Xinyang MIAO, Kun ZHAO
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 256-260.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0805-1
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Particulate matter with the diameter of less than 2.5 mm (PM2.5) is the most important causation of air pollution. In this study, PM2.5 samples were collected in three different environment including ordinary atmospheric environment, lampblack environment and the environment with an air conditioning exhaust fan, and analyzed by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The linear regression analysis and the principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify PM2.5 samples collected in different environment. The results indicate that combining THz-TDS with statistical methods can serve as a contactless and efficient approach to identify air pollutants in different environment.

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Detection of small ship targets from an optical remote sensing image
Mingzhu SONG, Hongsong QU, Guixiang ZHANG, Guang JIN
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 275-284.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0744-x
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Detection of small ships from an optical remote sensing image plays an essential role in military and civilian fields. However, it becomes more difficult if noise dominates. To solve this issue, a method based on a low-level vision model is proposed in this paper. A global channel, high-frequency channel, and low-frequency channel are introduced before applying discrete wavelet transform, and the improved extended contrast sensitivity function is constructed by self-adaptive center-surround contrast energy and a proposed function. The saliency image is achieved by the three-channel process after inverse discrete wavelet transform, whose coefficients are weighted by the improved extended contrast sensitivity function. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms all competing methods with higher precision, higher recall, and higher F-score, which are 100.00%, 90.59%, and 97.96%, respectively. Furthermore, our method is robust against noise and has great potential for providing more accurate target detection in engineering applications.

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Discrete combination method based on equidistant wavelength screening and its application to near-infrared analysis of hemoglobin
Tao Pan, Bingren Yan, Jiemei Chen, Lijun Yao
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 296-305.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0804-2
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A wavelength selection method for discrete wavelength combinations was developed based on equidistant combination-partial least squares (EC-PLS) and applied to a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) in human peripheral blood samples. An allowable model set was established through EC-PLS on the basis of the sequence of the predicted error values. Then, the wavelengths that appeared in the allowable models were sorted, combined, and utilized for modeling, and the optimal number of wavelengths in the combinations was determined. The ideal discrete combination models were obtained by traversing the number of allowable models. The obtained optimal EC-PLS and discrete wavelength models contained 71 and 42 wavelengths, respectively. A simple and high-performance discrete model with 35 wavelengths was also established. The validation samples excluded from modeling were used to validate the three models. The root-mean-square errors for the NIR-predicted and clinically measured Hb values were 3.29, 2.86, and 2.90 g·L−1, respectively; the correlation coefficients, relative RMSEP, and ratios of performance to deviation were 0.980, 0.983, and 0.981; 2.7%, 2.3%, and 2.4%; and 4.6, 5.3, and 5.2, respectively. The three models achieved high prediction accuracy. Among them, the optimal discrete combination model performed the best and was the most effective in enhancing prediction performance and removing redundant wavelengths. The proposed optimization method for discrete wavelength combinations is applicable to NIR spectroscopic analyses of complex samples and can improve prediction performance. The proposed wavelength models can be utilized to design dedicated spectrometers for Hb and can provide a valuable reference for non-invasive Hb detection.

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Longitudinal twinning α-In2Se3 nanowires for UV-visible-NIR photodetectors with high sensitivity
Zidong ZHANG, Juehan YANG, Fuhong MEI, Guozhen SHEN
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 245-255.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0820-2
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Longitudinal twinning α-In2Se3 nanowires with the (101¯8) twin plane were synthesized to fabricate high performance single nanowire based photodetectors. As-synthesized α-In2Se3 nanowire exhibited typical n-type semiconducting behavior with an electron mobility of 23.1 cm2·V1·S1 and a broadband spectral response from 300 to 1100 nm, covering the ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-visible-NIR) region. Besides, the fabricated device showed a high responsivity of 8.57 × 105 A·W1, high external quantum efficiency up to 8.8 × 107% and a high detectivity of 1.58 × 1012 Jones under 600 nm light illumination at a basis of 3 V, which are much higher than previously reported In2Se3 nanostructures due to the interface defect effect of the twin plane. The results indicated that the longitudinal twinning α-In2Se3 nanowires have immense potential for further applications in highly performance broadband photodetectors and other optoelectronic devices.

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Near-infrared carbon-implanted Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass waveguides
Xiaoliang SHEN, Yue WANG, Haitao GUO, Chunxiao LIU
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 291-295.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0803-3
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The Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate (EYDP) glass waveguides operated at 1539 nm have been manufactured by using the implantation technique of carbon ions under the condition of 6.0 MeV energy and 5.0 × 1013 ions/cm2 fluence in this work. The ion implantation process was computed by means of the stopping and range of ions in matter. The dark-mode spectrum at 1539 nm of the waveguide was recorded by the method of the prism coupling measurement. The microscopic image of the fabricated structure was photographed by an optical microscope. It is the first step for the application of the waveguides on the base of EYDP glasses in optical-integrated photonic devices at near-infrared band.

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Plasma characteristics of energetic liquid polymer ablated by nanosecond laser pulses
Jing QI, Siqi ZHANG, Tian LIANG, Weichong TANG, Ke XIAO, Lu GAO, Hua GAO, Zili ZHANG, Zhiyuan ZHENG
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 261-266.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0752-x
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The plasma characteristics of carbon-doped glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) are investigated ablation by nanosecond laser pulses. For the GAP energetic liquid, a specific impulse of 840 s and an ablation efficiency up to 98% are obtained, which can be attributed to the low mass loss owing to the carbon doping. A comparison between the chemical energies shows that the carbon-doped GAP provides better propulsion than pure GAP. This indicates that even for an energetic liquid, an efficient approach to enhance the thrust performance is to reduce the splashing. High ablation thrust could be achieved at a low laser fluence and high carbon content.

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ZnO/Nb2O5 core/shell nanorod array photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells
Xiaoyan HU, Heng WANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (3): 285-290.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0758-4
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In this paper, ZnO/Nb2O5 core/shell nanorod arrays were synthesized and used as photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We first synthesized ZnO nanorod array on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses by a hydrothermal method, and then ZnO/Nb2O5 core/shell nanorod array was directly obtained via solvothermal reaction in NbCl5 solution. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images revealed that the ZnO nanorods were uniformly wrapped by Nb2O5 shell layers with a thickness of 30–40 nm. Photovoltaic characterization showed that the device based on ZnO/Nb2O5 core/shell nanorod photoanode exhibited an improved efficiency of 1.995%, which was much higher than the efficiency of 0.856% for the DSSC based on bare ZnO nanorod photoanode. This proved that the photovoltaic performance of ZnO nanorods could be improved by wrapping with Nb2O5 shells.

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A review of multiple optical vortices generation: methods and applications
Long ZHU, Jian WANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 52-68.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0910-9
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Optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted increasing interest in recent years. Optical vortices have seen a variety of emerging applications in optical manipulation, optical trapping, optical tweezers, optical vortex knots, imaging, microscopy, sensing, metrology, quantum information processing, and optical communications. In various optical vortices enabled applications, the generation of multiple optical vortices is of great importance. In this review article, we focus on the methods of multiple optical vortices generation and its applications. We review the methods for generating multiple optical vortices in three cases, i.e., 1-to-N collinear OAM modes, 1-to-N OAM mode array and N-to-N collinear OAM modes. Diverse applications of multiple OAM modes in optical communications and non-communication areas are presented. Future trends, perspectives and opportunities are also discussed.

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Ether chain functionalized fullerene derivatives as cathode interface materials for efficient organic solar cells
Jikang LIU, Junli LI, Guoli TU
Front. Optoelectron.    2018, 11 (4): 348-359.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0842-9
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The electron transport layer (ETL) plays a crucial role on the electron injection and extraction, resulting in balanced charge transporting and reducing the interfacial energy barrier. The interface compatibility and electrical contact via employing appropriate buffer layer at the surface of hydrophobic organic active layer and hydrophilic inorganic electrode are also essential for charge collections. Herein, an ether chain functionalized fullerene derivatives [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyricacid-(3,5-bis(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethoxy)-phenyl)-methyl ester (C60-2EPM) was developed to modify zinc oxide (ZnO) in inverted structure organic solar cells (OSCs). The composited ZnO/C60-2EPM interface layer can help to overcome the low interface compatibility between ZnO and organic active layer. By introducing the C60-2EPM layer, the composited fullerene derivatives tune energy alignment and accelerated the electronic transfer, leading to increased photocurrent and power conversion efficiency (PCE) in the inverted OSCs. The PCE based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM was enhance from 8.11% on bare ZnO to 8.38% and 8.65% with increasing concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL, respectively. The fullerene derivatives C60-2EPM was also used as a third compound in P3HT:PC61BM blend to form ternary system, the devices with addition of C60-2EPM exhibited better values than the control device.

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Fiber-based optical trapping and manipulation
Hongbao XIN, Baojun LI
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 97-110.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-017-0755-z
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An optical fiber serves as a versatile tool for optical trapping and manipulation owing to its many advantages over conventional optical tweezers, including ease of fabrication, compact configurations, flexible manipulation capabilities, ease of integration, and wide applicability. Here, we review recent progress in fiber-based optical trapping and manipulation, which includes mainly photothermal-based and optical-force-based trapping and manipulation. We focus on five topics in our review of progress in this area: massive photothermal trapping and manipulation, evanescent-field-based trapping and manipulation, dual-fiber tweezers for single-nanoparticle trapping and manipulation, single-fiber tweezers for single-particle trapping and manipulation, and single-fiber tweezers for multiple-particle/cell trapping and assembly.

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Spectrally efficient single carrier 400G optical signal transmission
Jianjun YU
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 15-23.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0833-x
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In this paper, the recent progress on spectrally efficient single carrier (SC) 400G optical signal transmission was summarized. By using quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) and 64QAM, we can realize transmission distance over 10000, 6000 and 3000 km, respectively, with large area fiber and all-Raman amplification. To improve the system performance and generate high-order QAM, advanced digital signal processing algorithms such as probabilistic shaping and look-up table pre-distortion are employed to improve the transmission performance.

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Detection of photonic orbital angular momentum with micro- and nano-optical structures
Chenhao WAN, Guanghao RUI, Jian CHEN, Qiwen ZHAN
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 88-96.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-017-0730-8
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Light with an optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted an increasing amount of interest and has found its way into many disciplines ranging from optical trapping, edge-enhanced microscopy, high-speed optical communication, and secure quantum teleportation to spin-orbital coupling. In a variety of OAM-involved applications, it is crucial to discern different OAM states with high fidelity. In the current paper, we review the latest research progress on OAM detection with micro- and nano-optical structures that are based on plasmonics, photonic integrated circuits (PICs), and liquid crystal devices. These innovative OAM sorters are promising to ultimately achieve the miniaturization and integration of high-fidelity OAM detectors and inspire numerous applications that harness the intriguing properties of the twisted light.

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Antimony doped Cs2SnCl6 with bright and stable emission
Jinghui LI, Zhifang TAN, Manchen HU, Chao CHEN, Jiajun LUO, Shunran LI, Liang GAO, Zewen XIAO, Guangda NIU, Jiang TANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 352-364.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0907-4
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Lead halide perovskites, with high photoluminescence efficiency and narrow-band emission, are promising materials for display and lighting. However, the lead toxicity and environmental sensitivity hinder their potential applications. Herein, a new antimony-doped lead-free inorganic perovskites variant Cs2SnCl6:xSb is designed and synthesized. The perovskite variant Cs2SnCl6:xSb exhibits a broadband orange-red emission, with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 37%. The photoluminescence of Cs2SnCl6:xSb is caused by the ionoluminescence of Sb3+ within Cs2SnCl6 matrix, which is verified by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) and PL decay measurements. In addition, the all inorganic structure renders Cs2SnCl6:xSb with excellent thermal and water stability. Finally, a white light-emitting diode (white-LED) is fabricated by assembling Cs2SnCl6:0.59%Sb, Cs2SnCl6:2.75%Bi and Ba2Sr2SiO4:Eu2+ onto the commercial UV LED chips, and the color rendering index (CRI) reaches 81.

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The smallest nanowire spectrometers
Jianji DONG
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 341-341.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0983-5
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Screen printing process control for coating high throughput titanium dioxide films toward printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells
Zhining WAN, Mi XU, Zhengyang FU, Da LI, Anyi MEI, Yue HU, Yaoguang RONG, Hongwei HAN
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 344-351.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0904-7
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Screen printing technique has been widely applied for the manufacturing of both traditional silicon solar cells and emerging photovoltaics such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Particularly, we have developed a printable mesoscopic PSC based on a triple layer scaffold of TiO2/ZrO2/carbon. The deposition of the scaffold is entirely based on screen printing process, which provides a promising prospect for low-cost photovoltaics. However, the optimal thickness of the TiO2 layer for fabricating efficient printable PSCs is much smaller than the typical thickness of screen printed films. Here, we tune the concentration of the pastes and the printing parameters for coating TiO2 films, and successfully print TiO2 films with the thickness of 500−550 nm. The correlation between the thickness of the films and printing parameters such as the solid content and viscosity of the pastes, the printing speed and pressure, and the temperature has been investigated. Besides, the edge effect that the edge of the TiO2 films possesses a much larger thickness and printing positional accuracy have been studied. This work will significantly benefit the further development of printable mesoscopic PSCs.

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Terahertz wave generation from ring-Airy beam induced plasmas and remote detection by terahertz-radiation-enhanced-emission-of-fluorescence: a review
Kang LIU, Pingjie HUANG, Xi-Cheng ZHANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (2): 117-147.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0860-7
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With the increasing demands for remote spectroscopy in many fields ranging from homeland security to environmental monitoring, terahertz (THz) spectroscopy has drawn a significant amount of attention because of its capability to acquire chemical spectral signatures non-invasively. However, advanced THz remote sensing techniques are obstructed by quite a few factors, such as THz waves being strongly absorbed by water vapor in the ambient air, difficulty to generate intense broadband coherent THz source remotely, and hard to transmit THz waveform information remotely without losing the signal to noise ratio, etc. In this review, after introducing different THz air-photonics techniques to overcome the difficulties of THz remote sensing, we focus mainly on theoretical and experimental methods to improve THz generation and detection performance for the purpose of remote sensing through tailoring the generation and detection media, air-plasma.

For the THz generation part, auto-focusing ring-Airy beam was introduced to enhance the THz wave generation yield from two-color laser induced air plasma. By artificially modulated exotic wave packets, it is exhibited that abruptly auto-focusing beam induced air-plasma can give an up to 5.3-time-enhanced THz wave pulse energy compared to normal Gaussian beam induced plasma under the same conditions. At the same time, a red shift on the THz emission spectrum is also observed. A simulation using an interference model to qualitatively describe these behaviors has be developed.

For the THz detection part, the results of THz remote sensing at 30 m using THz-radiation-enhanced-emission-of-fluorescence (THz-REEF) technique are demonstrated, which greatly improved from the 10 m demonstration last reported. The THz-REEF technique in the counter-propagation geometry was explored, which is proved to be more practical for stand-off detections than co-propagation geometry. We found that in the counter-propagating geometry the maximum amplitude of the REEF signal is comparable to that in the co-propagating case, whereas the time resolved REEF trace significantly changes. By performing the study with different plasmas, we observed that in the counter-propagating geometry the shape of the REEF trace depends strongly on the plasma length and electron density. A new theoretical model suggesting that the densest volume of the plasma does not contribute to the fluorescence enhancement is proposed to reproduce the experimental measurements.

Our results further the understanding of the THz-plasma interaction and highlight the potential of THz-REEF technique in the plasma detection applications.

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Modulation of orbital angular momentum on the propagation dynamics of light fields
Peng LI, Sheng LIU, Yi ZHANG, Lei HAN, Dongjing WU, Huachao CHENG, Shuxia QI, Xuyue GUO, Jianlin ZHAO
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 69-87.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-017-0743-3
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Optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted extensive attention in recent decades because of their interesting applications in optical trapping, optical machining, optical communication, quantum information, and optical microscopy. Intriguing effects induced by OAMs, such as angular momentum conversion, spin Hall effect of light (SHEL), and spin–orbital interaction, have also gained increasing interest. In this article, we provide an overview of the modulations of OAMs on the propagation dynamics of scalar and vector fields in free space. First, we introduce the evolution of canonical and noncanonical optical vortices and analyze the modulations by means of local spatial frequency. Second, we review the Pancharatnam–Berry (PB) phases arising from spin–orbital interaction and reveal the control of beam evolution referring to novel behavior such as spin-dependent splitting and polarization singularity conversion. Finally, we discuss the propagation and focusing properties of azimuthally broken vector vortex beams.

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Heuristic polling sequence to enhance sleep count of EPON
Bhargav Ram RAYAPATI, Nakkeeran RANGASWAMY
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 422-432.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0906-5
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Next-generation passive optical networks (PONs) demand power conservation to create a green environment. A reduction in power consumption of the traditional Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) can be achieved by increasing the sleep count in optical network units (ONUs). In this paper, this is accomplished by introducing a first-in-last-out (FILO) polling sequence in the place of a fixed polling sequence to increase the number of ONUs entering sleep mode (sleep count). In a fixed polling sequence, the optical line terminal (OLT) allocates idle time to the ONUs based on the overall load of the ONUs. This leads to a situation that whenever the idle time does not meet the wakeup time threshold of sleep mode, the ONUs are put into doze/active mode, which consumes more power. In the FILO polling sequence, the first polled ONU in the current cycle is made to be polled last in the following cycle. Polling continues in this way, and by this rearrangement, the idle time of delayed poll ONUs increases; hence, it helps to reduce the power consumption. Additionally, a modified load adaptive sequence arrangement (MLASA) method is suggested, where the ONUs are categorized into doze ONUs and sleep ONUs. A numerical simulation of the FILO polling sequence with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) ONU shows a maximum reduction in power consumption of 15.5 W and a 20% improvement in energy savings compared with the traditional fixed polling sequence. The MLASA method results in better power consumption with minimum delay than that of the proposed FILO and existing LASA methods.

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On-chip programmable pulse processor employing cascaded MZI-MRR structure
Yuhe ZHAO, Xu WANG, Dingshan GAO, Jianji DONG, Xinliang ZHANG
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (2): 148-156.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0846-5
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Optical pulse processor meets the urgent demand for high-speed, ultra wideband devices, which can avoid electrical confinements in various fields, e.g., all-optical communication, optical computing technology, coherent control and microwave fields. To date, great efforts have been made particularly in on-chip programmable pulse processing. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a programmable pulse processor employing 16-cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer coupled microring resonator (MZI-MRR) structure based on silicon-on-insulator wafer. With micro-heaters loaded to the device, both amplitude and frequency tunings can be realized in each MZI-MRR unit. Thanks to its reconfigurability and integration ability, the pulse processor has exhibited versatile functions. First, it can serve as a fractional differentiator whose tuning range is 0.51−2.23 with deviation no more than 7%. Second, the device can be tuned into a programmable optical filter whose bandwidth varies from 0.15 to 0.97 nm. The optical filter is also shape tunable. Especially, 15-channel wavelength selective switches are generated.

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Transmission characteristics of linearly polarized light in reflection-type one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals
Chunxiang ZENG, Zeqing WANG, Yingmao XIE
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 365-371.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0870-0
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The propagation properties of linearly polarized light in reflection-type one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals are studied by using the 4×4 transmission matrix method. The structure models of reflection-type one-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals are designed, the magnetic field direction control characteristics of reflection spectrum and Kerr rotation angle are discussed, and the effect of applied magnetic field direction and strength on reflection spectrum and Kerr rotation angle are analyzed. The results show that the non-diagonal elements in the dielectric constant of magneto optical materials change when the angle ϕ between applied magnetic field and optical path changes, the reflectivity and Kerr rotation angle decrease when the angle ϕ increases; when the applied magnetic field strength changes, the reflectivity and Kerr rotation angle increase when the applied magnetic field strength increases; by adjusting the angle ϕ and strength of the applied magnetic field, the rotation angle of Kerr can be adjusted to 45°, and a more flat reflection spectrum can be obtained by designing the appropriate structure.

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Chemical sensing through photonic crystal fiber: sulfuric acid detection
Etu PODDER, Md. Bellal HOSSAIN, Rayhan Habib JIBON, Abdullah Al-Mamun BULBUL, Himadri Shekhar MONDAL
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 372-381.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0903-8
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A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) for sensing of sulfuric acid is designed and analyzed using Comsol Multiphysics. To analyze the sensor performance, 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% H2SO4 solution is placed into the fiber separately and then relative sensitivity, confinement loss, birefringence, effective area etc. are investigated for each solution over wavelength ranging from 0.8 to 1.8 mm. The sensor structure affords moderately high relative sensitivity and around 63.4% sensitivity is achieved for the highest concentration of H2SO4 at the wavelength 1.5 mm in x polarization direction. This PCF model also shows zero confinement loss for all solutions of H2SO4 over wavelength ranging from 1 to 1.35 mm and later on approximately 1.422 × 1017 dB/km confinement loss is found for the highest concentration of H2SO4 at 1.5 mm wavelength. Besides, higher birefringence is attained when the concentration of sulfuric acid is lower and it is achieved 7.5 × 104 at 1.5 mm wavelength. Moreover, higher sensing area is achieved at high concentration of sulfuric acid.

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Joint timing and frequency synchronization in coherent optical OFDM systems
Xinwei DU, Pooi-Yuen KAM, Changyuan YU
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (1): 4-14.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0868-7
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In this paper, we review our joint timing and frequency synchronization algorithms in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. We first present a timing estimation method by designing the pattern of the training symbol, whose timing metric has a sharp and clear peak, to ensure accurate timing offset (TO) estimation performance. Then we provide both data-aided (DA) and blind (BL) approaches to estimate the carrier frequency offset (CFO). For the DA algorithm, we utilize the same training symbol structure as the timing estimation does, while for the BL algorithm, we utilize the zero-subcarrier power (ZSP) to achieve full-range CFO estimation. Note that our joint timing and frequency synchronization approaches require only one OFDM symbol, which ensure not only the data transmission efficiency, but also the TO and CFO estimation performance. A modified BL ZSP algorithm is proposed to further improve the CFO estimation performance by taking the power average over a series of OFDM symbols. The effectiveness of the TO estimation algorithm, and both the DA and BL CFO estimation algorithms are verified and demonstrated in both simulations and experiments.

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Cited: Crossref(1)
Experimental and simulation assessments of underwater light propagation
Fatah ALMABOUADA, Manuel Adler ABREU, João M. P. COELHO, Kamal Eddine AIADI
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 405-412.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0865-x
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This paper investigates the light propagation through several types of water by experimental and simulation. The Zemax-ray tracing software allowed to simulate the propagation of light in water and to observe the receiver response by reproducing the real conditions of propagation. The underwater environment has been reproduced by a 1.2 m long water tube and 20 cm in diameter with a glass window fitted on one side. The use of tap water with different amounts of sand leads toward three types of water with different attenuation coefficients (0.133, 0.343, 0.580 m1). The light transmission in the three types of water was experimentally evaluated using a doubled Nd:YAG laser with energy of 4.3 mJ and a pulse width of 20 ns. Comparisons were done between simulation and experimental results.

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Ultra-flat broadband microwave frequency comb generation based on optical frequency comb with a multiple-quantum-well electro-absorption modulator in critical state
Cong SHEN, Peili LI, Xinyuan ZHU, Yuanfang ZHANG, Yaqiao HAN
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 382-391.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0915-4
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In this paper, we proposed a novel ultra-flat broadband microwave frequency comb (MFC) generation based on optical frequency comb (OFC) with a multiple-quantum-well electro-absorption modulator (MQW-EAM) in critical state. The scheme is simple and easy to adjust. The performance of the MFC generation scheme is investigated using software Optisystem. The results show that the comb spacing of MFC can be adjusted from 5 to 20 GHz by changing RF signal’s frequency and the MFC is almost independent on the linewidth of the tunable laser diode. The performance of the MFC can be improved by reasonably increasing the voltage of the RF, the small-signal gain of the Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and the responsivity of the photodetector. The MFC generated by this scheme has 300 GHz effective bandwidth with 15 comb lines, whose power variation is 0.02 dB, when the components’ parameters in the Optisystem are set as follows: the power of tunable laser diode (TLD) is 0 dBm, the wavelength is 1552.52 nm, and linewidth is 1 MHz; RF signal’s frequency is 20 GHz and the voltage is 10 V; the reverse bias voltage of MQW-EAM is 6.92 V; the small-signal gain of the EDFA is 40 dB; the responsivity of the photodetector (PD) is 1 A/W.

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Improved offline multi-objective routing and wavelength assignment in optical networks
Harpreet KAUR, Munish RATTAN
Front. Optoelectron.    2019, 12 (4): 433-444.   https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0850-4
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Optical networks act as a backbone for coming generation high speed applications. These applications demand a very high bandwidth which can be exploited with the use of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology. The issue of setting light paths for the traffic demands is routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem. Based on the type of traffic patterns, it can be categorized as offline or online RWA. In this paper, an effective solution to offline (static) routing and wavelength assignment is presented considering multiple objectives simultaneously. Initially, the flower pollination (FP) technique is utilized. Then the problem is extended with the parallel hybrid technique with flower pollination and intelligent water drop algorithm (FPIWDA). Further, FPIWD is hybrid in parallel with simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to propose a parallel hybrid algorithm FPIWDSA. The results obtained through extensive simulation show the superiority of FPIWD as compared to FP. Moreover, the results in terms of blocking probability with respect to wavelengths and load of FPIWDSA are more propitious than FP and FPIWD.

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