Frontiers of Optoelectronics

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Research development on fabrication and optical properties of nonlinear photonic crystals
Huangjia LI, Boqin MA
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0946-x
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Since the lasers at fixed wavelengths are unable to meet the requirements of the development of modern science and technology, nonlinear optics is significant for overcoming the obstacle. Investigation on frequency conversion in ferroelectric nonlinear photonic crystals with different superlattices has been being one of the popular research directions in this field. In this paper, some mature fabrication methods of nonlinear photonic crystals are concluded, for example, the electric poling method at room temperature and the femtosecond direct laser writing technique. Then the development of nonlinear photonic crystals with one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional superlattices which are used in quasi-phase matching and nonlinear diffraction harmonic generation is introduced. In the meantime, several creative applications of nonlinear photonic crystals are summarized, showing the great value of them in an extensive practical area, such as communication, detection, imaging, and so on.

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Highly nonlinear bored core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (BC-HPCF) with ultra-high negative dispersion for fiber optic transmission system
Md. Mostafa FARUK, Nazifa Tabassum KHAN, Shovasis Kumar BISWAS
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0948-8
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In this paper, we propose a bored core hexagonal photonic crystal fiber (BC-HPCF) which obtains ultra-high negative dispersion and large nonlinearity simultaneously. The aim of the proposed design is to achieve the desired optical properties by using circular air holes only to make the fiber simple and manufacturable. To investigate the light guiding properties of the proposed BC-HPCF, finite element method (FEM) with circular perfectly matched boundary layer (PML) is used. According to numerical simulation, it is possible to obtain a large value of negative dispersion of −2102 ps·nm1·km1 and large value of nonlinearity of 111.6 W1·km1 at optimum wavelength of 1550 nm. In addition, ±2% deviation in optical characteristics is evaluated and reported in order to study the practical feasibility of the proposed BC-HPCF. The large negative dispersion and high nonlinearity of our proposed design make it a strong candidate for optical broadband communication, super continuum generation, and sensing.

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Heuristic polling sequence to enhance sleep count of EPON
Bhargav Ram RAYAPATI, Nakkeeran RANGASWAMY
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0906-5
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Next-generation passive optical networks (PONs) demand power conservation to create a green environment. A reduction in power consumption of the traditional Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) can be achieved by increasing the sleep count in optical network units (ONUs). In this paper, this is accomplished by introducing a first-in-last-out (FILO) polling sequence in the place of a fixed polling sequence to increase the number of ONUs entering sleep mode (sleep count). In a fixed polling sequence, the optical line terminal (OLT) allocates idle time to the ONUs based on the overall load of the ONUs. This leads to a situation that whenever the idle time does not meet the wakeup time threshold of sleep mode, the ONUs are put into doze/active mode, which consumes more power. In the FILO polling sequence, the first polled ONU in the current cycle is made to be polled last in the following cycle. Polling continues in this way, and by this rearrangement, the idle time of delayed poll ONUs increases; hence, it helps to reduce the power consumption. Additionally, a modified load adaptive sequence arrangement (MLASA) method is suggested, where the ONUs are categorized into doze ONUs and sleep ONUs. A numerical simulation of the FILO polling sequence with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) ONU shows a maximum reduction in power consumption of 15.5 W and a 20% improvement in energy savings compared with the traditional fixed polling sequence. The MLASA method results in better power consumption with minimum delay than that of the proposed FILO and existing LASA methods.

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Distributed feedback organic lasing in photonic crystals
Yulan FU, Tianrui ZHAI
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0942-1
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Considerable research efforts have been devoted to the investigation of distributed feedback (DFB) organic lasing in photonic crystals in recent decades. It is still a big challenge to realize DFB lasing in complex photonic crystals. This review discusses the recent progress on the DFB organic laser based on one-, two-, and three-dimensional photonic crystals. The photophysics of gain materials and the fabrication of laser cavities are also introduced. At last, future development trends of the lasers are prospected.

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Exciton polaritons based on planar dielectric Si asymmetric nanogratings coupled with J-aggregated dyes film
Zhen CHAI, Xiaoyong HU, Qihuang GONG
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0940-3
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Optical cavity polaritons, originated from strong coupling between the excitons in materials and photons in the confined cavities field, have recently emerged as their applications in the high-speed low-power polaritons devices, low-threshold lasing and so on. However, the traditional exciton polaritons based on metal plasmonic structures or Fabry-Perot cavities suffer from the disadvantages of large intrinsic losses or hard to integrate and nanofabricate. This greatly limits the applications of exciton poalritons. Thus, here we implement a compact low-loss dielectric photonic – organic nanostructure by placing a 2-nm-thick PVA doped with TDBC film on top of a planar Si asymmetric nanogratings to reveal the exciton polaritons modes. We find a distinct anti-crossing dispersion behavior appears with a 117.16 meV Rabi splitting when varying the period of Si nanogratings. Polaritons dispersion and mode anti-crossing behaviors are also observed when considering the independence of the height of Si, width of Si nanowire B, and distance between the two Si nanowires in one period. This work offers an opportunity to realize low-loss novel polaritons applications.

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Ripening-resistance of Pd on TiO2(110) from first-principles kinetics
Qixin WAN, Hao LIN, Shuai WANG, Jiangnan DAI, Changqing CHEN
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0926-1
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Suppressing sintering of supported particles is of importance for the study and application of metal-TiO2 system. Theoretical study of Ostwald ripening of TiO2(110)-supported Pd particles would be helpful to extend the understanding of the sintering. In this paper, based on density functional theory (DFT), the surface energy of Pd and the total activation energy (the sum of formation energy and diffusion barrier) of TiO2-supported Pd were calculated. Since the total activation energy is mainly contributed from the formation energy, it is indicated that the ripening of Pd particles would be in the interface control limit. Subsequently, the calculated surface energy and total activation energy were used to simulate Ostwald ripening of TiO2(110)-supported Pd particles. As a result, in comparison with larger particles, smaller particles would worsen the performance of ripening-resistance according to its lower onset temperature and shorter half-life time. The differences on ripening-resistance among different size particles could be mitigated along with the increase of temperature. Moreover, it is verified that the monodispersity can improve ripening resistance especially for the smaller particles. However, the different performances of the ripening originating from difference of the relative standard deviation are more obvious at higher temperature than lower temperature. This temperature effect for the relative standard deviation is the inverse of that for the initial main particle size. It is indicated that the influence of dispersity of TiO2(110)-supported Pd particles on ripening may be more sensitive at higher temperature. In this contribution, we extend the first principle kinetics to elaborate the ripening of Pd on TiO2(110). It is expected that the information from first principle kinetics would be helpful to the study in experiments.

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Polarization-sensitive and active controllable electromagnetically induced transparency in U-shaped terahertz metamaterials
Kun REN, Ying ZHANG, Xiaobin REN, Yumeng HE, Qun HAN
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0921-6
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Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon is observed in simple metamaterial which consists of concentric double U-shaped resonators (USRs). The numerical and theoretical analysis reveals that EIT arises from the bright-bright mode coupling. The transmission spectra at different polarization angle of incident light shows that EIT transparency window is polarization sensitive. More interestingly, Fano resonance appears in the transmission spectrum at certain polarization angles. The sharp and asymmetric Fano lineshape is high valuable for sensing. The performance of sensor is investigated and the sensitivity is high up to 327 GHz/RIU. Furthermore, active control of EIT window is realized by incorporating photosensitive silicon. The proposed USR structure is simple and compact, which may find significant applications in tunable integrated devices such as biosensor, filters, and THz modulators.

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Holographic fabrication of octagon graded photonic super-crystal and potential applications in topological photonics
Oliver SALE, Safaa HASSAN, Noah HURLEY, Khadijah ALNASSER, Usha PHILIPOSE, Hualiang ZHANG, Yuankun LIN
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0941-2
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Novel optical properties in graded photonic super-crystals can be further explored if new types of graded photonic super-crystals are fabricated. In this paper, we report holographic fabrication of graded photonic super-crystal with eight graded lattice clusters surrounding the central non-gradient lattices through pixel-by-pixel phase engineering in a spatial light modulator. The prospect of applications of octagon graded photonic super-crystal in topological photonics is discussed through photonic band gap engineering and coupled ring resonators.

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A CCD based machine vision system for real-time text detection
Shihua ZHAO, Lipeng SUN, Gang LI, Yun LIU, Binbing LIU
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0854-0
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Text detection and recognition is a hot topic in computer vision, which is considered to be the further development of the traditional optical character recognition (OCR) technology. With the rapid development of machine vision system and the wide application of deep learning algorithms, text recognition has achieved excellent performance. In contrast, detecting text block from complex natural scenes is still a challenging task. At present, many advanced natural scene text detection algorithms have been proposed, but most of them run slow due to the complexity of the detection pipeline and cannot be applied to industrial scenes. In this paper, we proposed a CCD based machine vision system for real-time text detection in invoice images. In this system, we applied optimizations from several aspects including the optical system, the hardware architecture, and the deep learning algorithm to improve the speed performance of the machine vision system. The experimental data confirms that the optimization methods can significantly improve the running speed of the machine vision system and make it meeting the real-time text detection requirements in industrial scenarios.

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Ultra-flat broadband microwave frequency comb generation based on optical frequency comb with a multiple-quantum-well electro-absorption modulator in critical state
Cong SHEN, Peili LI, Xinyuan ZHU, Yuanfang ZHANG, Yaqiao HAN
Front. Optoelectron.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-019-0915-4
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In this paper, we proposed a novel ultra-flat broadband microwave frequency comb (MFC) generation based on optical frequency comb (OFC) with a multiple-quantum-well electro-absorption modulator (MQW-EAM) in critical state. The scheme is simple and easy to adjust. The performance of the MFC generation scheme is investigated using software Optisystem. The results show that the comb spacing of MFC can be adjusted from 5 to 20 GHz by changing RF signal’s frequency and the MFC is almost independent on the linewidth of the tunable laser diode. The performance of the MFC can be improved by reasonably increasing the voltage of the RF, the small-signal gain of the Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and the responsivity of the photodetector. The MFC generated by this scheme has 300 GHz effective bandwidth with 15 comb lines, whose power variation is 0.02 dB, when the components’ parameters in the Optisystem are set as follows: the power of tunable laser diode (TLD) is 0 dBm, the wavelength is 1552.52 nm, and linewidth is 1 MHz; RF signal’s frequency is 20 GHz and the voltage is 10 V; the reverse bias voltage of MQW-EAM is 6.92 V; the small-signal gain of the EDFA is 40 dB; the responsivity of the photodetector (PD) is 1 A/W.

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