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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2018, Vol. 11 Issue (2) : 107-115     https://doi.org/10.1007/s12200-018-0802-4
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Broadband linearization for 5G fronthaul transmission
Xiupu ZHANG()
iPhotonics Labs, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G1M8, Canada
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Abstract

5G is emerging, but the current fronthaul transmission technologies used for 3G and 4G may not be efficient and appropriate for 5G. It has been found that frequency division multiple access (FDMA) and time-division multiple access (TDMA) based radio over fiber (RoF) may be considered the most appropriate for 5G fronthaul transmission technology. Due to analog RoF transmission, broadband linearization is required. In this work, both electrical and optical broadband linearization techniques are reviewed.

Keywords 5G      fronthaul      radio over fiber (RoF)      optical fiber communications      linearization     
Corresponding Authors: Xiupu ZHANG   
Just Accepted Date: 20 March 2018   Online First Date: 19 April 2018    Issue Date: 04 July 2018
 Cite this article:   
Xiupu ZHANG. Broadband linearization for 5G fronthaul transmission[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2018, 11(2): 107-115.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-018-0802-4
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2018/V11/I2/107
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Xiupu ZHANG
Fig.1  Linearization techniques [9]
Fig.2  Working principle of APDC [12]
Fig.3  Mathematic model for APDC to be used for suppression of 3rd order nonlinearity [9]
Fig.4  (a) Schematic of APDC, WPD: Wilkinson power divider; and (b) fabricated APDC [11]
Fig.5  Measured amplitude modulation/amplitude modulation characteristic of APDC [11]
Fig.6  (a) Schematic of APDC; and (b) photo of APDC [12]
Fig.7  Measured RF power of IMD3 versus frequency spacing between two RF signals [12]
Fig.8  (a) Schematic of analog predistortion circuit; and (b) photo of designed circuit [13]
Fig.9  Measured EVM improvement for WiFi signal with wireless carrier from 2 to 5 GHz over RoF [13]
Fig.10  Measured RF spectrum for two wireless bands at 800 and 840 MHz over RoF [15]
Fig.11  Measured RF spectrum for three bands of wireless signals at 800, 850 and 900 MHz over RoF transmission [15]
Fig.12  Measured RF spectrum for two wireless signals at 800 and 900 MHz over RoF [15]
memory depth* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
envelope DPD** 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77
2D DPD [16] 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135
Tab.1  Number of coefficients vs memory depth
Fig.13  Measured RF spectrum at the output of RoF transmission that is linearized by either non linearization, 2D-DPD [16], APDC, and hybrid APDC and 2D-DPD. Two RF signals are located at 800 and 840 MHz [17]
Scenario linearization method improvement
EVM ACPR IMD3
800 and 900 MHz APDC only 2.0 dB 1.8 dB 14.9 dB
2D-DPD only 9.9 dB 17.5 dB 0.3 dB
hybrid 11.0 dB 19.4 dB 15.0 dB
800 and 840 MHz APDC only 2.2 dB 4.7 dB 17.0 dB
2D-DPD only 7.0 dB -0.3dB -1.1 dB
hybrid 8.2 dB 4.6 dB 16.8 dB
800, 850 and 900 MHz APDC only 2.4 dB 3.3 dB 3.7 dB
RF DPD only 9.3 dB 8.2 dB 16.5 dB
hybrid 10.1 dB 8.6 dB 16.9 dB
Tab.2  Comparison of improvements by three linearization techniques
Fig.14  Schematic of mixed polarization that is used to linearize an MZM. LP: linear polarizer [18]
Fig.15  Measured transmission characteristics for three cases: conventional MZM without linearization (TE only), MZM linearized by mixed-polarization (MP), and MZM linearized by MP combined with a saturated SOA (MP+SOA) [23]
Fig.16  Schematic of dual-wavelength RoF transmission system. oRx: optical receiver [26]
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