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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front. Optoelectron.    2017, Vol. 10 Issue (1) : 18-30     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-017-0702-z
Characterization of basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 and its relevance for photovoltaics
Chao CHEN1,David C. BOBELA2,Ye YANG2,Shuaicheng LU1,Kai ZENG1,Cong GE1,Bo YANG1,Liang GAO1,Yang ZHAO1,Matthew C. BEARD2,Jiang TANG1()
1. Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
2. Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA
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Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) is a promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaics because of its attractive material, optical and electrical properties. In recent years, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells has gradually enhanced to 5.6%. In this article, we systematically studied the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 such as dielectric constant, anisotropic mobility, carrier lifetime, diffusion length, defect depth, defect density and optical band tail states. We believe such a comprehensive characterization of the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 lays a solid foundation for further optimization of solar device performance.

Keywords antimony selenide (Sb2Se3)      mobility      lifetime      diffusion length      defects     
Corresponding Authors: Jiang TANG   
Just Accepted Date: 23 January 2017   Online First Date: 01 March 2017    Issue Date: 17 March 2017
 Cite this article:   
Chao CHEN,David C. BOBELA,Ye YANG, et al. Characterization of basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 and its relevance for photovoltaics[J]. Front. Optoelectron., 2017, 10(1): 18-30.
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Shuaicheng LU
Cong GE
Liang GAO
Matthew C. BEARD
Jiang TANG
Fig.1  Frequency dependent dielectric constant of Sb2Se3. The inset is the ilustration of the parallel plate capacitor with the interspcaing between Au electrodes as 1 mm
Fig.2  Estimation of anisotropic carrier mobilities. (a) X-ray diffraction patterns of [020]-, [120]- and [221]-Sb2Se3 films and (b−d) the corresponding cross-sectional SEM image. The transient current in TOF measurement of (e) [020]-Sb2Se3, (f) [120]-Sb2Se3 and (g) [221]-Sb2Se3 films after photoexcitation at time t = 0 in a bilogarithmic plot; the transit time τt is identified as the crossover point of two blue lines. The atomic configuration of (h) (020), (i) (120) and (j) (221) crystal plane of Sb2Se3. The red and green dash arrows represent the carrier hopping from one ribbon to the adjacent ones along a- and b-directions, respectively; the azure solid arrows stand for carrier transporting within the (Sb4Se6)n ribbons
Fig.3  (a) TA spectrum at various time delays after photoexcitation; (b) fs-TA kinetics averaged between 900 and 950 nm; (c) ns-TA edge kinetics averaged between 900 and 950 nm and the corresponding single exponential fitting (green lines) for Sb2Se3 film
Fig.4  Estimation of diffusion length by the bias dependent IQE method. (a) −ln(1−IQE) against depletion width (xd). The diffusion length and absorption coefficient were extracted by the intercept and slope of the linear fitting. (b) Comparison between the absorption coefficient derived from IQE+ CV (red dots line) and the measured value from transmittance (black line)
Fig.5  Defect characterization on [221] oriented Sb2Se3 by temperature dependent conductivity measurement. (a) Logarithmic dark conductivity versus 1000/T in the temperature range of 85 to 420 K; (b) ln(σT1/2) versus T?−1/4 in the temperature range of 85 to 160 K
Fig.6  Defect distribution in Sb2Se3 film. (a) Density of defect states of Sb2Se3 from admittance spectra. The defect peak at (0.095±0.008) eV could be perfectly fitted by Gaussian function as blue dash line; (b) Gaussian defect distribution in the band gap
Fig.7  Absorption coefficient (α) versus photon energy (hn). The Absorption coefficient of crystal and amorphous Sb2Se3 films were obtain from PDS spectrum
parameter value characterization method
er 18 CF, 2 MHz
29 CF, 2 kHz
μh/(cm2·V−1·s−1) a 1.17 TOF
b 0.69
c 2.59
μe/(cm2·V−1·s−1) c >16.9 Hall effect
τe/ns 67±7 TA
Le/mm [221] 0.29±0.03 bias IQE, low illumination
[001] 1.7±0.2 calculated, high illumination
nt/cm−3 6.9 × 1014 SCLC
1.3 × 1015 TAS
(Et−Ev)/eV 0.095±0.008 TAS
E1/eV 0.578±0.009 conductivity
E2/eV 0.111±0.005 conductivity
T0/K 2.31 × 106 conductivity
U0/meV c-Sb2Se3 38±3 (1.1−1.25 eV) PDS
c-Sb2Se3 129±7 (0.8−1.1 eV) PDS
a-Sb2Se3 79±2 (0.8−1.25 eV) PDS
Tab.1  Summary of physical parameters of Sb2Se3 reported in this paper
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