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Frontiers of Optoelectronics

Front Optoelec    2012, Vol. 5 Issue (4) : 371-389     DOI: 10.1007/s12200-012-0283-9
REVIEW ARTICLE |
Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells
Dehua XIONG, Wei CHEN()
Michael Gr?tzel Centre for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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Abstract

Tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) can take full advantage of sunlight, effectively broadening the absorption spectrum of the cell, resulting in a higher open circuit voltage or short circuit current than that of the conventional DSSC with single light absorber. The theoretical maximum efficiency is therefore suggested to be over the Schottky-Queisser limit of 33%. Accordingly, tandem design of DSSC is thought to be a promising way to break the performance bottleneck of DSSC. Besides, the tandem designs also broaden the application diversity of DSSC technology, which will accelerate its scale-up industrial application. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent progress on photo-electrochemical applications associated with kinds of tandem designs of DSSCs, in general, which are divided into three kinds: “n-type DSSC+n-type DSSC,” “n-type DSSC+p-type DSSC” and “n-type DSSC+other solar conversion devices.” The working principles, advantages and challenges of these tandem structured DSSCs have been discussed. Some possible solutions for further studies have been also pointed out together.

Keywords dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs)      tandem structure      photo-electrochemical cell     
Corresponding Authors: CHEN Wei,Email:wnlochenwei@hust.edu.cn   
Issue Date: 05 December 2012
 Cite this article:   
Dehua XIONG,Wei CHEN. Recent progress on tandem structured dye-sensitized solar cells[J]. Front Optoelec, 2012, 5(4): 371-389.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/10.1007/s12200-012-0283-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/foe/EN/Y2012/V5/I4/371
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Fig.1  Schematics of tandem dye-sensitized solar cell made up of two completed cells, scanning electron micrographs, and irradiation spectra (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2004), American Institute of Physics)
Fig.2  Selective positioning of different dyes in one integrated film (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2009), with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: [Nature Materials])
Fig.3  Structure of tandem cell with one floating porous electrode in the middle (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), Elsevier)
Fig.4  Schematic diagram of preparation procedure and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of multilayered photoanode. (a) cross section; b) interface of the scattering and transferred layers; and c) interface of the transferred and bottom layers (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2011), with permission from John Wiley and Sons)
Fig.5  Schematic show of working principle of n-p tandem structured DSSC (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: [Nature Materials]) (HOMO: highest occupied molecular orbital, LUMO: lower unoccupied molecular orbital, VAC: vacuum level, NHE: normal hydrogen electrode)
electrodethickness/μmdyeelectrolyteVoc/mVJsc/(mA·cm-2)η/%Ref..
NiO1TPPC0.5 M LiI/0.05 M I298.50.0790.0033[20]
erythrosin B82.80.2320.0076
NiO4.2dye 3iodide/triiodide208±36.36±0.150.46±0.02[21]
6.0185±37.0±0.300.43±0.01
NiO1erythrosin B0.5 M LiI/0.05 M I2830.2690.0071[22]
NiOnoneNK-2684I-/I3- electrolyte932.00.027[23]
NiO1.6erythrosin J0.5 M LiI/0.05 M I2122±30. 36±0.120.011±0.001[24]
eosin B0.5 M LiI/0.05 M I277±80. 14±0.020.0032±0.0001
NiO35C3430.6 M LiI/0.3 M I21131.610.057[25]
NiO1.6C3430.5 M LiI/0.05 M I298±80. 55±0.140.016±0.004[24]
0.5 M LiI/0.5 M I265±101.15±0.350. 025±0.006
0.5 M LiI/2 M I237±2.42.13±0.20.024±0.003
NiO0.6C3430.5 M LiI/0.1 M I2700.780.017[26]
P11101.520.052
NiO2.4C3430.7 M LiI/0.05 M I21010.860.031[27]
NiO3.5C343I-/I3- electrolyte1170.880.036[28]
PMI-NDI dyad3701.30.16
NiO1.7fast green FCF0.7 M LiI/0.05 M I2931.440.043[27]
2.2NKX-23111000.660.022
2.1NK-3628770.430.011
1.8NK-2612730.450.013
NiO1-1.4P11 M LiI/0.1 M I21102.510.08[29]
P41002.480.09
NiO5PINDICoII/III couple3501.70.2[30]
PI800.260.006
C3431900.250.015
NiO1.1-1.2P11 M LiI/0.1 M I21063.010.12[31]
P1845.480.15
C343711.890.05
NiO1.2P21 M LiI/0.1 M I2633.370.07[32]
P3551.360.03
P7803.370.09
NiO3.3dye 1iodide/triiodide1532.060.09[33]
dye 21763.400.19
dye 32185.350.41
1.55dye 32273.870.30
NiOXdye 3iodide/triiodide3500.040.01[34]
X+ 0.13051.320.14
NiO0.9dye 3iodide/triiodide3012.60.33[35]
1.72923.30.40
NiO0.6O21.0 M LiI/ 0.1 M I2941.430.05[36]
O6971.040.037
O7901.740.06
NiO0.6O81.0 M LiI/ 0.1 M I2630.440.009[37]
O11791.160.033
O12821.840.051
NiOruthenium sensitizers 11.0 M LiI/0.1 M I2850.630.019[38]
ruthenium sensitizers 2950.780.025
ruthenium sensitizers 3750.250.0065
ruthenium sensitizers 4850.650.018
C343950.870.03
NiO2PMINDICo(ttb-tpy)2(ClO4)2/3PC2401.610.13[39]
Co(dtb-bpy)3(ClO4)2/3PC3402.000.24
Co(dMeO-bpy)3(PF6)2/3MeCN2002.420.17
Co(dtb-bpy)3(PF6)2/3MeCN2752.650.24
CuAlO21.6Dye 3iodide/triiodide333none0.041[40]
CuGaO23.03P11.0 M LiI/ 0.1 M I21800.3840.026[41]
0.1 MCo3+/0.1 MCo2+3570.1650.018
CuGaO21.5PMINDI0.1 M LiI/1 M I21870.290.023[42]
Co2+/Co3+3750.120.0149
Tab.1  Summary of p-type DSSC with their photovoltaic characteristics
Fig.6  Molecular structure of coumarin 343 (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (1996), American Chemical Society)
Fig.7  Structures of dyes (NKX-2311, NKX-2586, NKX-2753 and NKX-2593) []
Fig.8  Molecular structures of P1, P2, P3, P4 and P7 (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), American Chemical Society)
Fig.9  Molecular structures of PI and PINDI (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2009), John Wiley and Sons)
Fig.10  Chemical structure of donor-acceptor dyes 1–3(Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: [Nature Materials])
Fig.11  Structures of series dye with O8, O11 and O12 (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2012), American Chemical Society)
Fig.12  Molecular structure of Co tris(4,4′-di-ter-butyl-2,2′-dipyridy1) (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2009), John Wiley and Sons)
Fig.13  (a) Schematic representation of DSSC/CIGS structure, DSSC and CIGS are series connected (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), with permission from Elsevier); (b) spectral response curves of photocurrent for DSSC top cell (bold line) and a red and near IR sensitive bottom cell (dotted line) (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright [2006], American Institute of Physics)
Fig.14  Illustration on structure and working principle of tandem positioned DSSC and Si solar cell (Reprinted with permission from Ref. [], Copyright (2011), American Chemical Society)
Fig.15  Illustration on structure of hybrid tandem solar cell based on solid-state DSSC and vacuum deposited bulk heterojunction solar cell (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2009), with permission from Elsevier)
Fig.16  Two-wire hybrid tandem cell (HTC2) was made by connecting DSSC and TC (thermoelectric cell) (Reprinted from Ref. [], Copyright (2010), with permission from Elsevier)
Fig.17  Layout of three architectures for tandem cell using hematite photoanode and two DSSCs in series. (a) “Back DSSC” configuration; (b) “Trilevel” configuration; (c) “Front DSSC” configuration []
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