Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

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Vehicle roll stability control with active roll-resistant electro-hydraulic suspension
Lijun XIAO, Ming WANG, Bangji ZHANG, Zhihua ZHONG
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0547-9
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This study examines roll stability control for vehicles with an active roll-resistant electro-hydraulic suspension (RREHS) subsystem under steering maneuvers. First, we derive a vehicle model with four degrees of freedom and incorporates yaw and roll motions. Second, an optimal linear quadratic regulator controller is obtained in consideration of dynamic vehicle performance. Third, an RREHS subsystem with an electric servo-valve actuator is proposed, and the corresponding dynamic equations are obtained. Fourth, field experiments are conducted to validate the performance of the vehicle model under sine-wave and double-lane-change steering maneuvers. Finally, the effectiveness of the active RREHS is determined by examining vehicle responses under sine-wave and double-lane-change maneuvers. The enhancement in vehicle roll stability through the RREHS subsystem is also verified.

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Damage mechanism and evaluation model of compressor impeller remanufacturing blanks: A review
Haiyang LU, Yanle LI, Fangyi LI, Xingyi ZHANG, Chuanwei ZHANG, Jiyu DU, Zhen LI, Xueju RAN, Jianfeng LI, Weiqiang WANG
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0548-8
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The theoretical and technological achievements in the damage mechanism and evaluation model obtained through the national basic research program “Key Fundamental Scientific Problems on Mechanical Equipment Remanufacturing” are reviewed in this work. Large centrifugal compressor impeller blanks were used as the study object. The materials of the blanks were FV520B and KMN. The mechanism and evaluation model of ultra-high cycle fatigue, erosion wear, and corrosion damage were studied via theoretical calculation, finite element simulation, and experimentation. For ultra-high cycle fatigue damage, the characteristics of ultra-high cycle fatigue of the impeller material were clarified, and prediction models of ultra-high cycle fatigue strength were established. A residual life evaluation technique based on the “b-HV-N” (where b was the nonlinear parameter, HV was the Vickers hardness, and N was the fatigue life) double criterion method was proposed. For erosion wear, the flow field of gas-solid two-phase flow inside the impeller was simulated, and the erosion wear law was clarified. Two models for erosion rate and erosion depth calculation were established. For corrosion damage, the electrochemical and stress corrosion behaviors of the impeller material and welded joints in H2S/CO2 environment were investigated. KISCC (critical stress intensity factor) and da/dt (crack growth rate, where a is the total crack length and t is time) varied with H2S concentration and temperature, and their variation laws were revealed. Through this research, the key scientific problems of the damage behavior and mechanism of remanufacturing objects in the multi-strength field and cross-scale were solved. The findings provide theoretical and evaluation model support for the analysis and evaluation of large centrifugal compressor impellers before remanufacturing.

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A naive optimization method for multi-line systems with alternative machines
Weichang KONG, Fei QIAO, Qidi WU
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0544-z
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The scheduling of parallel machines and the optimization of multi-line systems are two hotspots in the field of complex manufacturing systems. When the two problems are considered simultaneously, the resulting problem is much more complex than either of them. Obtaining sufficient training data for conventional data-based optimization approaches is difficult because of the high diversity of system structures. Consequently, optimization of multi-line systems with alternative machines requires a simple mechanism and must be minimally dependent on historical data. To define a general multi-line system with alternative machines, this study introduces the capability vector and matrix and the distribution vector and matrix. A naive optimization method is proposed in accordance with classic feedback control theory, and its key approaches are introduced. When a reasonable target value is provided, the proposed method can realize closed-loop optimization to the selected objective performance. Case studies are performed on a real 5/6-inch semiconductor wafer manufacturing facility and a simulated multi-line system constructed on the basis of the MiniFAB model. Results show that the proposed method can effectively and efficiently optimize various objective performance. The method demonstrates a potential for utilization in multi-objective optimization.

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Evaluation of regenerative braking based on single-pedal control for electric vehicles
Wei LIU, Xintian LIU, Yansong WANG, Hongzhong QI
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0546-x
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More than 25% of vehicle kinetic energy can be recycled under urban driving cycles. A single-pedal control strategy for regenerative braking is proposed to further enhance energy efficiency. Acceleration and deceleration are controlled by a single pedal, which alleviates driving intensity and prompts energy recovery. Regenerative braking is theoretically analyzed based on the construction of the single-pedal system, vehicle braking dynamics, and energy conservation law. The single-pedal control strategy is developed by considering daily driving conditions, and a single-pedal simulation model is established. Typical driving cycles are simulated to verify the effectiveness of the single-pedal control strategy. A dynamometer test is conducted to confirm the validity of the simulation model. Results show that using the single-pedal control strategy for electric vehicles can effectively improve the energy recovery rate and extend the driving range under the premise of ensuring safety while braking. The study lays a technical foundation for the optimization of regenerative braking systems and development of single-pedal control systems, which are conducive to the promotion and popularization of electric vehicles.

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Structural parameter design method for a fast-steering mirror based on a closed-loop bandwidth
Guozhen CHEN, Pinkuan LIU, Han DING
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0545-y
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When a fast-steering mirror (FSM) system is designed, satisfying the performance requirements before fabrication and assembly is vital. This study proposes a structural parameter design approach for an FSM system based on the quantitative analysis of the required closed-loop bandwidth. First, the open-loop transfer function of the FSM system is derived. In accordance with the transfer function, the notch filter and proportional-integral (PI) feedback controller are designed as a closed-loop controller. The gains of the PI controller are determined by maximizing the closed-loop bandwidth while ensuring the robustness of the system. Then, the two unknown variables of rotational radius and stiffness in the open-loop transfer function are optimized, considering the bandwidth as a constraint condition. Finally, the structural parameters of the stage are determined on the basis of the optimized results of rotational radius and stiffness. Simulations are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the FSM system is fabricated, and corresponding experimental tests are conducted. Experimental results indicate that the bandwidth of the proposed FSM system is 117.6 Hz, which satisfies the minimum bandwidth requirement of 100 Hz.

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Key point selection in large-scale FBG temperature sensors for thermal error modeling of heavy-duty CNC machine tools
Jianmin HU, Zude ZHOU, Quan LIU, Ping LOU, Junwei YAN, Ruiya LI
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0543-0
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Thermal error is one of the main factors that influence the machining accuracy of computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools. It is usually reduced by thermal error compensation. Temperature field monitoring and key temperature measurement point (TMP) selection are the bases of thermal error modeling and compensation for CNC machine tools. Compared with small- and medium-sized CNC machine tools, heavy-duty CNC machine tools require the use of more temperature sensors to measure their temperature comprehensively because of their larger size and more complex heat sources. However, the presence of many TMPs counteracts the movement of CNC machine tools due to sensor cables, and too many temperature variables may adversely influence thermal error modeling. Novel temperature sensors based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are developed in this study. A total of 128 FBG temperature sensors that are connected in series through a thin optical fiber are mounted on a heavy-duty CNC machine tool to monitor its temperature field. Key TMPs are selected using these large-scale FBG temperature sensors by using the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm to reduce the calculation workload and avoid problems in the coupling of TMPs for thermal error modeling. Back propagation neural network thermal error prediction models are established to verify the performance of the proposed TMP selection method. Results show that the number of TMPs is reduced from 128 to 5, and the developed model demonstrates good prediction effects and strong robustness under different working conditions of the heavy-duty CNC machine tool.

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Effect of TGO on the tensile failure behavior of thermal barrier coatings
Le WANG, Yuelan DI, Ying LIU, Haidou WANG, Haoxing YOU, Tao LIU
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0541-2
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Thermally grown oxide (TGO) may be generated in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) after high-temperature oxidation. TGO increases the internal stress of the coatings, leading to the spalling of the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate the growth characteristics, microstructure, and composition of TGO after high-temperature oxidation for 0, 10, 30, and 50 h, and the results were systematically compared. Acoustic emission (AE) signals and the strain on the coating surface under static load were measured with AE technology and digital image correlation. Results showed that TGO gradually grew and thickened with the increase in oxidation time. The thickened TGO had preferential multi-cracks at the interface of TGO and the bond layer and delayed the strain on the surface of the coating under tensile load. TGO growth resulted in the generation of pores at the interface between the TGO and bond layer. The pores produced by TGO under tensile load delayed the generation of surface cracks and thus prolonged the failure time of TBCs.

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New analysis model for rotor-bearing systems based on plate theory
Zhinan ZHANG, Mingdong ZHOU, Weimin DING, Huifang MA
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0525-2
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The purpose of this work is to develop a new analysis model for angular-contact, ball-bearing systems on the basis of plate theory instead of commonly known approaches that utilize spring elements. Axial and radial stiffness on an annular plate are developed based on plate, Timoshenko beam, and plasticity theories. The model is developed using theoretical and inductive methods and validated through a numerical simulation with the finite element method. The new analysis model is suitable for static and modal analyses of rotor-bearing systems. Numerical examples are presented to reveal the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

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Review of the damage mechanism in wind turbine gearbox bearings under rolling contact fatigue
Yun-Shuai SU, Shu-Rong YU, Shu-Xin LI, Yan-Ni HE
Front. Mech. Eng.    https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-018-0474-1
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Wind turbine gearbox bearings fail with the service life is much shorter than the designed life. Gearbox bearings are subjected to rolling contact fatigue (RCF) and they are observed to fail due to axial cracking, surface flaking, and the formation of white etching areas (WEAs). The current study reviewed these three typical failure modes. The underlying dominant mechanisms were discussed with emphasis on the formation mechanism of WEAs. Although numerous studies have been carried out, the formation of WEAs remains unclear. The prevailing mechanism of the rubbing of crack faces that generates WEAs was questioned by the authors. WEAs were compared with adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) generated in the high strain rate deformation in terms of microstructural compositions, grain refinement, and formation mechanism. Results indicate that a number of similarities exist between them. However, substantial evidence is required to verify whether or not WEAs and ASBs are the same matters.

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