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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2020, Vol. 15 Issue (3) : 484-495
Manufacturing and mechanical properties of composite orthotropic Kagome honeycomb using novel modular method
Bin NIU, Shijie LI, Rui YANG()
Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
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This work deals with manufacturing and analysis of orthotropic composite Kagome honeycomb panels. A novel modular mold is proposed to manufacture carbon fiber reinforced composite Kagome honeycombs. The designed mold can be assembled freely to manufacture Kagome honeycombs with different configuration combinations and can realize easy demolding. Furthermore, two typical fiber placement methods are considered during the fabrication process, from which the more effective fiber placement method is determined. Finally, representative volume element method is used to perform homogenization analysis of the Kagome honeycomb panels and to obtain equivalent in-plane and bending stiffness. Finite element analysis using these equivalent properties is conducted and validated against the experimental results of the manufactured composite Kagome honeycomb panels under different loading cases.

Keywords composite      Kagome honeycomb      manufacturing      placement of fibers      equivalent stiffness     
Corresponding Author(s): Rui YANG   
Just Accepted Date: 28 June 2020   Online First Date: 06 August 2020    Issue Date: 03 September 2020
 Cite this article:   
Bin NIU,Shijie LI,Rui YANG. Manufacturing and mechanical properties of composite orthotropic Kagome honeycomb using novel modular method[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2020, 15(3): 484-495.
Fig.1  Schematic of Kagome honeycombs (unit: mm).
Fig.2  Designed modular mold. (a) Mold diagram; (b) actual photo of the mold.
Fig.3  Manufacturing process of Kagome honeycombs. (a) Assemble mold, (b) fiber placement, (c) vacuum bag assistance and heat, and (d) Kagome honeycomb (2×1).
Fig.4  Case A laying method. (a) Overall placement; (b) enlarged view of the intersection.
Fig.5  Case B laying method. (a) Overall placement; (b) enlarged view of the intersection.
Fig.6  Compression response comparison of Kagome honeycombs (2 × 1 unit cells) manufactured using the two placement methods: Cases A and B. (a) Testing fixture; (b) compression response of honeycomb.
Fig.7  Bending response comparison of Kagome honeycombs (3 × 2 unit cells) manufactured using the two placement methods: Cases A and B.
Fig.8  Axial compression experiment of cell wall. (a) Direction 1 compression; (b) Direction 2 compression.
Fig.9  Standard samples and test process of the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio. (a) Standard specimens; (b) test process.
Fig.10  Unit cell finite element model. (a) Unit cell model; (b) display of beam section.
Stiffness Initial strain Boundary displacement and rotation Stiffness formula
A11 ε0= [1,0, 0]T,
κ= [0,0,0 ]T
u(a,y) u(0,y)=a,
v(x,b) v(x,0)=0
A11=2U cell/V
A22 ε0= [0,1, 0]T,
κ= [0,0,0 ]T
u(a,y) u(0,y)=0,
v(x,b) v(x,0)=b
A22=2U cell/V
A66 ε0= [0,0, 1]T,
κ= [0,0,0 ]T
v(a,y) v(0,y)=a/ 2,
u(x,b) u(x,0)=b/ 2
A66=2U cell/V
A12 ε0= [1,1, 0]T,
κ= [0,0,0 ]T
u(a,y) u(0,y)=a,
v(x,b) v(x,0)=b
A12= (2Ucell/VA 11A22)/2
D11 ε0= [0,0, 0]T,
κ= [1,0,0 ]T
θy (a,y )θ y(0,y)=a,
θx (x,b )θ x(x ,0)=0
D11=2U cell/V
D22 ε0= [0,0, 0]T,
κ= [0,1,0 ]T
θy (a,y )θ y(0,y)=0,
θx (x,b )θ x(x ,0)=b
D22=2U cell/V
D66 ε0= [0,0, 0]T,
κ= [0,0,1 ]T
w(a,y) w(0,y)=a y/2,
w(x,b) w(x,0)=b x/2,
θx (a,y )θ x(0,y)=a /2,
θy (x,b )θ y(x ,0)=b/2,
D66=2U cell/V
D12 ε0= [0,0, 0]T,
κ= [1,1,0 ]T
θy (a,y )θ y(0,y)=a
θx (x,b )θ x(x ,0)=b
D12= (2Ucell/VD 11D22)/2
Tab.1  Periodic boundary conditions and corresponding equivalent stiffness of Kagome honeycomb
Unit cell combination Axial displacement/m Error/%
Discrete honeycomb Equivalent plate
2×1 -3.47×10-4 -3.40×10-4 1.8
3×2 -2.57×10-4 -2.52×10-4 1.9
5×3 -2.83×10-4 -2.78×10-4 1.8
11×10 -1.76×10-4 -1.73×10-4 1.7
Tab.2  Axial displacement of Kagome honeycombs under in-plane loading
Unit cell combination Max displacement/m Error/%
Discrete honeycomb Equivalent plate
3 × 2 -1.09×10-3 -1.21×10-3 9.9
2 × 4 -0.81×10-3 -0.85×10-3 4.9
5 × 3 -0.42×10-3 -0.43×10-3 2.4
11 × 10 -1.30×10-2 -1.32×10-2 1.5
Tab.3  Center point displacement of Kagome honeycombs under bending
Fig.11  Compression response of 2 × 1 Kagome honeycomb: Linear elastic deformation (Point A), local damage (Point B), and cell wall fracture (Point C).
Fig.12  Compression response of 3 × 2 Kagome honeycombs: Local damage (Point D) and cell wall fracture (Point E).
Fig.13  Bending response of Kagome honeycombs. (a) 4 × 2 Kagome honeycombs; (b) 3 × 2 Kagome honeycombs.
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