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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2020, Vol. 15 Issue (1) : 1-11     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-019-0563-9
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Towards a next-generation production system for industrial robots: A CPS-based hybrid architecture for smart assembly shop floors with closed-loop dynamic cyber physical interactions
Qingmeng TAN, Yifei TONG(), Shaofeng WU, Dongbo LI
School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing 210094, China
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Abstract

Given the multiple varieties and small batches, the production of industrial robots faces the ongoing challenges of flexibility, self-organization, self-configuration, and other “smart” requirements. Recently, cyber physical systems have provided a promising solution for the requirements mentioned above. Despite recent progress, some critical issues have not been fully addressed at the shop floor level, including dynamic reorganization and reconfiguration, ubiquitous networking, and time constrained computing. Toward the next generation production system for industrial robots, this study proposed a hybrid architecture for smart assembly shop floors with closed-loop dynamic cyber physical interactions. Aiming for dynamic reorganization and reconfiguration, the study also proposed modularized smart assembly units for the deployment of physical assembly processes. Enabling technologies, such as multiagent system (MAS), self-organized wireless sensor actuator networks, and edge computing, were discussed and then integrated into the proposed architecture. Furthermore, a multijoint robot assembly process was selected as a target scenario. Thus, an MAS was developed to simulate the coordination and negotiation mechanisms for the proposed architecture on the basis of the Java Agent Development Framework platform.

Keywords cyber physical system      robot assembly      multiagent system      architecture     
Corresponding Authors: Yifei TONG   
Just Accepted Date: 27 December 2019   Online First Date: 20 January 2020    Issue Date: 21 February 2020
 Cite this article:   
Qingmeng TAN,Yifei TONG,Shaofeng WU, et al. Towards a next-generation production system for industrial robots: A CPS-based hybrid architecture for smart assembly shop floors with closed-loop dynamic cyber physical interactions[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2020, 15(1): 1-11.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-019-0563-9
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2020/V15/I1/1
Fig.1  Hybrid architecture of CPS based smart assembly shop floors.
Fig.2  Prototype of smart assembly unit (SAU).
Node type Functionality Mobility Routing mode Instances
Sensor node Sense Yes Multi-hop Temperature/humidity sensors
Actuator node Actuate Yes Multi-hop Pneumatic actuators
Hybrid node Both sense and actuate Some yes Multi-hop SAUs/AGVs
Tab.1  Node types in WSAN
Fig.3  MAS framework.
Fig.4  Main assembly process of multijoint robots.
Fig.5  Simulation layout of arm component assembly shop floors.
Fig.6  ACL message communication between physical agents in distributed JADE. DF: Directory facilitator; AMS: Agent management system.
Fig.7  Communication sequence diagram of GPM.
Fig.8  Communication sequence diagram of LNM.
Agent name Encapsulation entity Types
MCA Mechanical components assembly Coordination agent
SAU1 No. 1 SAU for arm assembly Physical agent
SAU2 No. 2 SAU for arm assembly Physical agent
SAU3 No. 3 SAU for gear assembly Physical agent
AGV AGV for transportation Physical agent
Tab.2  Agent descriptions
Random time sa/(m?min–1) d(1)/m Tsc(1)/min Tsp(1)/min Tsw(1)/min d(2)/m Tsc(2)/min Tsp(2)/min Tsw(2)/min d(3)/m Tsc(3)/min Tsp(3)/min Tsw(3)/min
ta 20 20 1 4 5 40 2 6 8 60 3 5 1
tb 20 20 1 4 1 0 0 6 2 20 1 5 2
Tab.3  Parameters in random time ta and tb
Random time Ts(1)/min Ts(2)/min Ts(3)/min min( Ts)/min Contracted SAU
ta 10 16 9 9 SAU3
tb 6 8 8 6 SAU1
Tab.4  Coordination results
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