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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2018, Vol. 13 Issue (4) : 461-481     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-018-0481-2
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cracking evolution behaviors of lightweight materials based on in situ synchrotron X-ray tomography: A review
Y. Luo1, S. C. Wu1(), Y. N. Hu1, Y. N. Fu2
1. State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
2. Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai 201204, China
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Abstract

Damage accumulation and failure behaviors are crucial concerns during the design and service of a critical component, leading researchers and engineers to thoroughly identifying the crack evolution. Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography can be used to detect the inner damage evolution of a large-density material or component. This paper provides a brief review of studying the crack initiation and propagation inside lightweight materials with advanced synchrotron three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging, such as aluminum materials. Various damage modes under both static and dynamic loading are elucidated for pure aluminum, aluminum alloy matrix, aluminum alloy metal matrix composite, and aluminum alloy welded joint. For aluminum alloy matrix, metallurgical defects (porosity, void, inclusion, precipitate, etc.) or artificial defects (notch, scratch, pit, etc.) strongly affect the crack initiation and propagation. For aluminum alloy metal matrix composites, the fracture occurs either from the particle debonding or voids at the particle/matrix interface, and the void evolution is closely related with fatigued cycles. For the hybrid laser welded aluminum alloy, fatigue cracks usually initiate from gas pores located at the surface or sub-surface and gradually propagate to a quarter ellipse or a typical semi-ellipse profile.

Keywords fatigue crack initiation and growth      fatigue damage mechanism      damage tolerance      defect characterization      laser welded aluminum alloys     
Corresponding Author(s): S. C. Wu   
Just Accepted Date: 15 January 2018   Online First Date: 08 March 2018    Issue Date: 31 July 2018
 Cite this article:   
Y. Luo,S. C. Wu,Y. N. Hu, et al. Cracking evolution behaviors of lightweight materials based on in situ synchrotron X-ray tomography: A review[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2018, 13(4): 461-481.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-018-0481-2
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2018/V13/I4/461
Fig.1  Basic principles of the modern SR-mCT. Reprinted from Ref. [7] with permission from Springer
Fig.2  Imaging capability of current third-generation high-resolution synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging beamlines to study the damage evolution of metallic materials. Reprinted from Ref. [9] with permission from Elsevier
Beamlines Best energy/keV Energy resolution ΔE/E Spatial resolution/mm Sample position/m Beam size (H×V)
ID19, ESRF 12–60 ~1×10−4 0.74 ~150 45×6 mm2@150 m@50 keV
XU47, Spring-8 5.2–37.7 ~2×10−4 0.47 ~40 1.2×0.3 mm2@40 m@18 keV
13W1, SSRF 8–72.5 ~3×10−3 0.74 ~34 45×5 mm2@34 m@20 keV
32ID, APS 5–30 ~3×10−4 1.00 ~40 45×6 mm2@40 m@20 keV
I12, DLS 53–150 ~3×10−4 1.30 ~90 50×15 mm2@40 m@20 keV
Tab.1  Representative beamline parameters to conduct in situ mCT material fatigue tests based on third-generation synchrotron radiation facility [1418]
Fig.3  3D rendering of the various form of micro-damage near the crack of a pre-charged sample, where pores and voids are highlighted in red, particles in aqua, and cracks are in yellow. Reprinted from Ref. [19] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.4  (a) Demonstration of original intermetallic particles sizes; voids of 6xxx series Al alloys by (b) advanced X-ray microtomography and (c) traditional SEM. Reprinted from Ref. [20] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.5  Sequential deformation of FG Al foam, (a) observed via video camera, (b) reconstructed from SR-mCT. Reprinted from Ref. [22] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.6  Testing rigs designed for in situ fatigue imaging via SR-mCT, operated at (a) ESRF, reprinted from Refs. [5,23] with permission from Taylor & Francis and Elsevier, respectively, (b) Spring-8, reprinted from Ref. [24] with permission from Elsevier, and (c) SSRF, respectively
Fig.7  3D renders of the fatigue crack initiation from gas pores, in which fatigue cracks initiated from a pore were highlighted in red, while the others were in pink. (a) 0 cycle; (b) 230000 cycles; (c) 240000 cycles. Reprinted from Ref. [11] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.8  (a) Optical micrograph of the fatigue crack at the sample surface; (b) 3D rendering of the crack surface. Reprinted from Ref. [29] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.9  (a) 2D image of microstructure elements, (b) 3D image of the microstructure, pores in purple, Fe-rich particles in green and Al2Cu particles in yellow. Reprinted from Ref. [32] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.10  3D perspective view of voids nucleate, grow and coalesce at the notch root: (a) Third loading step; (b) sixth loading step; (c) seventh loading step. Reprinted from Ref. [36] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.11  3D fatigue crack propagation profiles: (a) Crack profiles as a function of fatigue cycle; (b) full crack propagation profiles at 3000 cycles. Reprinted from Ref. [38] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.12  3D rendering of the fatigue crack through brittle inclusions, presenting Fe-rich inclusions in bright and Si-rich inclusions in dark. Reprinted from Ref. [38] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.13  X-ray microtomography of crack initiation from an internal pore. (a) T=150 °C, N=10000 cycles; (b) T=250 °C, N=30 cycles. Reprinted from Ref. [40] with permission from John Wiley & Sons
Fig.14  The comparison between FE calculation and DVC results, (a) strain distribution computed by FE simulation and (b) the strain distribution measured by DVC. Reprinted from Ref. [40] with permission from John Wiley & Sons
Fig.15  3D rendering of the cracks and pores observed at (a) 13000 cycles, (b) 22200 cycles, (c) 22800 cycles, and (d) 23300 cycles [41]
Fig.16  Reconstructed microtomography of particles (grey/orange) and porosities (red) (a) with high-resolution, (b) and (c) nanoresolution. Reprinted from Ref. [42] with permission from Taylor & Francis
Fig.17  In situ X-ray tomography of corrosion 7075 Al alloy. (a) 2D X-ray tomography slice containing corrosive fluid, hydrogen bubbles and corrosion products; (b) 3D reconstructions of the corrosion-fatigue crack (bubble+ fluid) and corrosion products. Reprinted from Ref. [43] with permission from Springer
Fig.18  3D rendering images of pores in Al matrix. (a) Non-sheared case; (b) sheared case; (c) the largest pore inside non-sheared case; (d) the largest pore inside sheared case. Reprinted from Ref. [50] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.19  3D images of SiC particles inside Al matrix. (a) Non-sheared case; (b) sheared case; (c) the largest pore inside non-sheared case; (d) the largest pore inside sheared case. Reprinted from Ref. [50] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.20  Rendered damage evolution for the Al MMC with 1 vol. % MG particles during the interrupted in situ tensile tests. Reprinted from Ref. [53] with permission from Taylor & Francis
Fig.21  The 3D images of the in situ formed TiB2 within the Al-TiB2 composite. (a) Spatial distribution of TiB2 in the SR-CT; (b) cutaway view of the composite. Reprinted from Ref. [54] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.22  (a) 3D rendering of Fe-rich inclusions; (b) 3D rendering of pores; (c) frequency distribution of Fe-rich inclusion and pores in SiC-reinforcement Al MMCs. Reprinted from Ref. [56] with permission from Springer
Fig.23  The interaction between the crack and particles under different loading states. (a) R=0.1; (b) R=0.6. The fatigue crack is highlighted in red, particles interacting with the crack are shown in blue, and the others are shown in green. Reprinted from Ref. [59] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.24  Crack growth at R=0.6 (a) 0 cycle, (b) 7000 cycles, (c) 21000 cycles, particles fractured ahead of crack are shown in green, particles travelled through by cracks are shown in blue. Reprinted from Ref. [59] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.25  (a) 3D rendering of fracture surface with SiC particles, crack in the particles, and voids in the matrix, (b) 3D rendering showing distribution of voids and Fe-rich inclusions. Reprinted from Ref. [60] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.26  3D image of SiC particles as well as cracks in particles and voids in matrix. Reprinted from Ref. [63] with permission from Taylor & Francis
Fig.27  Damage evolution during thermal cycling by X-ray microtomography, (a) with particles and voids, (b) voids only. Reprinted from Ref. [63] with permission from Taylor & Francis
Fig.28  28 Image of 3D porosity inside a hybrid laser 7020-T651 joint. Reprinted from Ref. [68] with permission from Chinese Laser Press
Fig.29  Corner fatigue crack behaviors. (a) Sub-surface crack initiation and (b) surface initiation for a surface corner quarter elliptical crack; (c) surface crack initiation and (d) sub-surface crack initiation for a typical surface semi-elliptical crack. Reprinted from Ref. [23] with permission from Elsevier
Fig.30  Interaction between pores and fatigue cracks inside hybrid welded 7075-T6 joints, number of fatigue cycles were (a) N=300031, and (b) N=410778. Reprinted from Ref. [12] with permission from Taylor & Francis
Fig.31  (a) The 3D mapping of gas pores from SR-mCT; (b) the predicted void volume fraction evolution of a laser welded AA7020 joint with about 0.7 mm of the displacement load. Reprinted from Refs. [65,66] with permission from Chinese Laser Press
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