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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front. Mech. Eng.    2014, Vol. 9 Issue (2) : 106-119
Tool wear mechanisms in the machining of Nickel based super-alloys: A review
Waseem AKHTAR1,*(),Jianfei SUN1,Pengfei SUN1,Wuyi CHEN1,Zawar SALEEM2
1. School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2. Mechanical Engineering department, University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila, Pakistan
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Nickel based super-alloys are widely employed in aircraft engines and gas turbines due to their high temperature strength, corrosion resistance and, excellent thermal fatigue properties. Conversely, these alloys are very difficult to machine and cause rapid wear of the cutting tool, frequent tool changes are thus required resulting in low economy of the machining process. This study provides a detailed review of the tool wear mechanism in the machining of nickel based super-alloys. Typical tool wear mechanisms found by different researchers are analyzed in order to find out the most prevalent wear mechanism affecting the tool life. The review of existing works has revealed interesting findings about the tool wear mechanisms in the machining of these alloys. Adhesion wear is found to be the main phenomenon leading to the cutting tool wear in this study.

Keywords tool wear      nickel based super-alloy      wear mechanism     
Corresponding Authors: Waseem AKHTAR   
Issue Date: 22 May 2014
 Cite this article:   
Waseem AKHTAR,Jianfei SUN,Pengfei SUN, et al. Tool wear mechanisms in the machining of Nickel based super-alloys: A review[J]. Front. Mech. Eng., 2014, 9(2): 106-119.
Fig.1  SEM micrographs of the wear profile of ABW20 ceramic cutting tool when machining Inconel 718 nickel based alloy (cutting speed v = 80 m/min, depth of cut ap = 0.3 mm, feed rates f = 0.15 mm/r)
Fig.2  Burr formations for different materials (LG= large grain, SG= Small grain, A= aged, S= solutioned)
Fig.3  SEM micrograph of the worn insert
Fig.4  Adhesion of work material onto rake and flank faces of the TiAlN coated tool
Fig.5  SEM micrograph of the worn rake face
Fig.6  SEM images of the cutting rake and flank face of tools: (a) K313 (uncoated) tool at 8.56 min, (b) (PVD TiAlN) coated tool at 13.91 min, and (c) (CVDTiCN/Al203/TiN) coated tool at 10.39 min
Fig.7  SEM images of tool wear morphology (vc = 20 m/min): (a) built-up-edge; (b) chipping; (c) Wear debris
Fig.8  SEM images of tool wear morphology in high-speed machining Inconel 718: (a) vc = 40 m/min; (b) vc = 45 m/min; (c) vc = 45 m/min
Fig.9  Four common problem types when milling Inconel 718 with a round type TiAlN/AlCrN insert: (a) flank wear, (b) chipping, (c) notch wear, and (d) flaking
Fig.10  Chemical composition at point A
Fig.11  (a) SEM of worn out CBN tool (vc = 250 m/min, f = 0.1 mm/rev); (b) SEM of worn out CCBN tool (vc = 350 m/min, f = 0.1 mm/rev)
Fig.12  Plastic deformation of SIALON ceramic insert
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