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Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering

Front Mech Eng    2013, Vol. 8 Issue (1) : 42-61     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11465-013-0358-3
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Gripping mechanisms in current wood harvesting machines
D. GOUBET(), J. C. FAUROUX, G. GOGU
French Institute for Advanced Mechanics, Clermont University, AUBIERE 63175, France
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the structural synthesis of gripping mechanisms used in the mechanization of the harvesting process. The importance of the gripping function in current devices like harvesting heads is underlined. This function is performed with several typical mechanisms which are listed and described in this article. This study distinguishes two kinds of planar gripping mechanisms mainly used in opening and closing the rollers: five concentric and two lateral ones. Both kinds have advantages and drawbacks. So a third kind of hybrid mechanism has been designed in order to orientate the axis of the rollers during gripping motion in order to combine concentric and lateral gripping advantages. Two planar and one spatial existing mechanisms are described. The last part of this paper presents a structural synthesis of such a spatial parallel mechanism by using the structural parameters and the general formulae established by the third author. Nine kinematic diagrams of spatial parallel mechanisms are provided.

Keywords structural synthesis      parallel mechanisms      gripping mechanisms      wood harvesting      harvesting head     
Corresponding Author(s): GOUBET D.,Email:david.goubet@ifma.fr   
Issue Date: 05 March 2013
 Cite this article:   
D. GOUBET,J. C. FAUROUX,G. GOGU. Gripping mechanisms in current wood harvesting machines[J]. Front Mech Eng, 2013, 8(1): 42-61.
 URL:  
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/10.1007/s11465-013-0358-3
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fme/EN/Y2013/V8/I1/42
Fig.1  Mechanized devices used in wood harvesting. (a) Motorized chain saw STIHL MS 660; (b) processing machine SIFER 103C; (c) wood harvester JOHN DEERE 1170E; (d) harvesting head JOHN DEERE H752HD
Fig.2  Harvesting head KESLA 25 RH []
Fig.3  Simplified FAST diagram of an all-in-one harvesting head and importance of the gripping capacity
Fig.4  Simplified kinematic diagram of an all-in-one harvesting head
Fig.5  Lower knives moved by a concentric gripping mechanism with single actuator. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head KOMATSU 370.2 []
Fig.6  Upper knives moved by a concentric gripping mechanism with two actuators. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head PONSSE H8 []
Fig.7  Hydraulic diagram of the actuator driving system
Fig.8  Roller arms moved by a concentric gripping mechanism with two actuators. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head JOHN DEERE H480C []
Fig.9  Upper knives moved by a concentric gripping mechanism with coupling bar. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head KOMATSU 370.2 []
Fig.10  Geometric representation of the non-symmetric motion due to the coupling bar
Fig.11  Roller arms moved by a concentric gripping mechanism with coupling bar. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head PONSSE H8 []
Fig.12  Rollers in closure position—free triangle
Fig.13  Simplified kinematic diagram of an all-in-one harvesting head with lateral gripping mechanism
Fig.14  Roller arms moved by a lateral gripping mechanism with single actuator. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head JOHN DEERE H752HD []
Fig.15  Roller arms moved by a lateral gripping mechanism with two actuators. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head LOGMAX 7000 []
Fig.16  Arms moved by a four bar gripping mechanism. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head KETO 600 TS [,]
Fig.17  Rollers moved by a cam gripping mechanism. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head KESLA 25 RH []
Fig.18  Roller arms moved by a symmetrically balanced gripping mechanism. (a) Kinematic diagram; (b) harvesting head SP MASKINER SP 561 LF [,]
Fig.19  Structural graph of the mechanism
Fig.20  The limb combining the actuator
Fig.21  Equivalent kinematic chains
Fig.22  Simplified unactuated mechanism. (a) Structural graph; (b) kinematic diagram
Fig.23  The simplified structural graph with unknown joints 1, 2 and 2'
SymboleNameNumber of degrees of freedom f(Ji)
RRevolute1
PPrismatic1
CCylindrical2
SSpherical3
P/PPlanar contact3
S/CSphere/cylinder contact4
C/PCylinder/plane contact4
S/PSphere/plane contact5
Tab.1  List of joints and their respective number of degrees of freedom
f(J1)Possibilities for J1f(J2)Possibilities for J2Number of combinations (J1, J2)
12 (P or R)42 (C/P or S/C)4
32 (S or P/P)32 (S or P/P)4
51 (S/P)21 (C)1
Total9
Tab.2  Possible combinations for joints 1 and 2
Fig.24  Examples of kinematic diagrams with or Rand
Fig.25  Examples of kinematic diagrams with and
Fig.26  Example of kinematic diagram with and
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