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Frontiers of Medicine

Front. Med.    2018, Vol. 12 Issue (6) : 634-644     https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-018-0670-8
REVIEW |
Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism
Xiaojiao Zheng1, Shouli Wang1, Wei Jia1,2()
1. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus and Center for Translational Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China
2. University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
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Abstract

Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed relative abundance following CR. Analyses of the gut microbial and host metabolisms revealed that most host microbial co-metabolites were changed due to CR. Examples of dramatic CR-induced changes in host metabolism included a decrease in the rate of lipid biosynthesis and an increase in the rates of fatty acid catabolism, β-oxidation, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis. The observed phenotypes and the further verification of the direct link between gut microbiota and metabolome may benefit patients that are at risk for developing metabolic disease. Thus, improved gut microbiota composition and metabolome are potential biomarkers for determining the effectiveness of dietary interventions for age-related and metabolic diseases.

Keywords caloric restriction      gut microbiota      metabolome     
Corresponding Authors: Wei Jia   
Just Accepted Date: 24 October 2018   Online First Date: 16 November 2018    Issue Date: 03 December 2018
 Cite this article:   
Xiaojiao Zheng,Shouli Wang,Wei Jia. Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism[J]. Front. Med., 2018, 12(6): 634-644.
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http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/10.1007/s11684-018-0670-8
http://journal.hep.com.cn/fmd/EN/Y2018/V12/I6/634
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Fig.1  Phylogenetic tree of all reported taxa. The abundance of taxa in red indicates increased abundance, blue indicates decreased abundance, and black indicates controversial alteration after CR intervention. The taxa in gray have not been reported in CR-related studies.
Metabolite types Increased after CR Decreased after CR Inconsistent in the reports
Host-microbial co-metabolites Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) Hippurate, dimethylgycine, trimethylamine (TMA) p-Cresol, phenylacetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid
Lipoprotein High density lipoprotein (HDL) Low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
Glyceryl derivatives of lipids and phospholipid choline   Choline, glycerophosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC) (18:0/20:4), sphingomyelin (SM) (d18:0/16:1), lysoPCs (C16:1, C16:0, C17:0, C18:2, C18:1, C18:0, C20:4, C20:3, and C22:6), diacylglycerol lipids, triacylglycerol lipids  
Free fatty acids n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7), heptadecenoic acid (C17:1 n7), γ-linolenic acid (C18:3 n6), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids
Ketone bodies Acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate    
Bile acids Taurocholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, w-muricholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid
Amino acids Glutamate, methionine, glutamine, alanine Branched-chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids  
Others Carnitine, gluconate Pyruvate  
Tab.1  CR related metabolites
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